Focal radiation therapy (RT) has been successfully employed to clinically manage multiple types of cancer for more than a century. Besides being preferentially cytotoxic for malignant cells over their nontransformed counterparts, RT elicits numerous microenvironmental alterations that appear to factor into its therapeutic efficacy. Here, we briefly discuss immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive microenvironmental changes elicited by RT and their impact on tumor recognition by the host immune system.

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