Recognition by plant receptors of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and pathogenicity effectors activates immunity. However, before evolving the capacity of perceiving and responding to MAMPs and pathogenicity factors, plants, like animals, must have faced the necessity to protect and repair the mechanical wounds used by pathogens as an easy passage into their tissue. Consequently, plants evolved the capacity to react to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) with responses capable of functioning also in the absence of pathogens. DAMPs include not only primarily cell wall (CW) fragments but also extracellular peptides, nucleotides and amino acids that activate both local and long-distance systemic responses and, in some cases, prime the subsequent responses to MAMPs. It is conceivable that DAMPs and MAMPs act in synergy to activate a stronger plant immunity and that MAMPs exploit the mechanisms and transduction pathways traced by DAMPs. The interest for the biology and mechanism of action of DAMPs, either in the plant or animal kingdom, is expected to substantially increase in the next future. This review focuses on the most recent advances in DAMPs biology, particularly in the field of CW-derived DAMPs.