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Keywords: glutamine
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Clin Sci (Lond) (2017) 131 (12): 1329–1342.
Published: 07 June 2017
...Rui Curi; Renata de Siqueira Mendes; Luiz Aurélio de Campos Crispin; Giuseppe Danilo Norata; Sandra Coccuzzo Sampaio; Philip Newsholme In 1986 and 1987, Philip Newsholme et al. reported macrophages utilize glutamine, as well as glucose, at high rates. These authors measured key enzyme activities...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2012) 122 (12): 591–597.
Published: 05 March 2012
...Paul Castillo Rodas; Olav Rooyackers; Christina Hebert; Åke Norberg; Jan Wernerman Glutamine depletion is demonstrated to be an independent predictor of hospital mortality in ICU (intensive care unit) patients. Today glutamine supplementation is recommended to ICU patients on parenteral nutrition...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2004) 107 (3): 281–289.
Published: 24 August 2004
... these drugs have been shown to produce include inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase, mitochondrial dysfunction and free radical-induced oxidative changes, all of which contribute to the mucosal damage seen. Glutamine is a fuel preferentially used by enterocytes and is known to contribute to maintaining the integrity...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2004) 106 (3): 287–292.
Published: 01 March 2004
...IRA S. FALCÃO DE ARRUDA; JOSÉ E. DE AGUILAR-NASCIMENTO Brain injury patients have higher energy and protein expenditures and are prone to infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of early enteral feeding with glutamine and probiotics in brain injury patients. Twenty...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2003) 105 (6): 691–698.
Published: 01 December 2003
... for 18 h and then received intravenous infusions of saline or parenteral nutrition (PN) with or without glutamine for 6 h. In animals receiving PN, parenteral injections of growth hormone (GH) or saline vehicle were also administered. Fractional rate of liver total protein synthesis was elevated...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2003) 104 (3): 275–282.
Published: 14 February 2003
..., glutathione depletion occurs in parallel with a progressive decline in muscle glutamine concentration. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that glutamine supplementation may counteract glutathione depletion in a human trauma model. A homogeneous group of patients ( n = 17) undergoing...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2002) 103 (4): 403–408.
Published: 09 September 2002
...Tania Cristina PITHON-CURI; Adriana C. LEVADA; Lúcia R. LOPES; Sonia Q. DOI; Rui CURI The effect of glutamine on the activity of the NADPH oxidase complex from rat neutrophils was investigated. Superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production was assessed: (1) by scintillation counting by using lucigenin...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2002) 103 (2): 179–189.
Published: 17 July 2002
... by apoptosis, which is important for the effective resolution of the inflammatory response. Both glucose and glutamine are important fuels for neutrophils, yet little has been done to investigate the comparative effects of glucose and glutamine on neutrophil apoptosis. We hypothesized that glucose...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2002) 102 (3): 337–344.
Published: 15 February 2002
...Michele A. MARKLEY; Agostino PIERRO; Simon EATON Glutamine has beneficial effects on enterocytes and the immune system in sepsis, but its effects on hepatic metabolism remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of glutamine on hepatocyte energy metabolism under...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2002) 102 (3): 287–295.
Published: 11 February 2002
... the respiratory burst in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OKG is usually recognized as generating glutamine, arginine and polyamines. The aim of the present study was first to determine the effects of OKG on PMN bactericidal functions (chemotaxis and respiratory...
Clin Sci (Lond) (2000) 99 (3): 189–194.
Published: 02 August 2000
...Gianni BIOLO; R. Y. Declan FLEMING; Sergio P. MAGGI; Thuan T. NGUYEN; David N. HERNDON; Robert R. WOLFE Glutamine is synthesized primarily in skeletal muscle, and enables transfer of nitrogen to the liver, as well as serving other functions. There is increasing evidence for beneficial clinical...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1999) 97 (6): 657–669.
Published: 29 October 1999
...Lindsay E. ROBINSON; Françoise I. BUSSIÈRE; Jacques LE BOUCHER; Marie-Chantal FARGES; Luc A. CYNOBER; Catherine J. FIELD; Vickie E. BARACOS Dietary supplementation with glutamine (Gln), arginine (Arg) or ornithine 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate; OKG) has attracted recent attention...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1999) 97 (1): 59–65.
Published: 21 May 1999
...Christophe MOINARD; Béatrice CHAUVEAU; Stéphane WALRAND; Catherine FELGINES; Jacques CHASSAGNE; Florence CALDEFIE; Luc A. CYNOBER; Marie-Paule VASSON The effects of diets supplemented with 6.8 mmol⋅day -1 ⋅kg -1 glutamine, arginine or ornithine 2-oxoglutarate [ornithine α-ketoglutarate (OKG...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1999) 96 (6): 639–646.
Published: 11 May 1999
...Steven W. M. OLDE DAMINK; Ivo DE BLAAUW; Nicolaas E. P. DEUTZ; Peter B. SOETERS Glutamine is considered to be a ‘conditionally’ essential amino acid. During situations of severe stress like sepsis or after trauma there is a fall in plasma glutamine levels, enhanced glutamine turnover...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1999) 96 (6): 549–555.
Published: 28 April 1999
...-investigated topic. The present study has addressed the effects of adrenaline on the rates of utilization and oxidation of glucose and glutamine, the phagocytic capacity and the rate of superoxide production by rat neutrophils. Incubation of rat neutrophils in the presence of 50 µ M adrenaline caused a marked...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1998) 95 (4): 409–418.
Published: 01 October 1998
...Cornelis H. C. DEJONG; Carlo F. M. WELTERS; Nicolaas E. P. DEUTZ; Erik HEINEMAN; Peter B. SOETERS 1. Arginine can be produced in the kidney from citrulline. An important source of circulating citrulline is the intestinal breakdown of glutamine. Consequently, partial enterectomy leads to decreased...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1998) 95 (4): 397–407.
Published: 01 October 1998
... reduce the concentration of intermediates of the urea cycle. It is possible that a glutamine-utilizing pathway exists in mononuclear phagocytes that may connect with the urea cycle. 2. In this paper we report that mouse peritoneal resident and Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG)-activated macrophages...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1998) 94 (3): 313–319.
Published: 01 March 1998
...L. A. James; P. G. Lunn; S. Middleton; M. Elia 1. The activities of the two key enzymes involved in glutamine metabolism, glutaminase and glutamine synthetase, were measured in mucosal biopsies taken from different sites throughout the human gastrointestinal tract, from oesophagus to rectum. 2...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1995) 89 (3): 311–319.
Published: 01 September 1995
...Takashi Higashiguchi; Yoshifumi Noguchi; Tory Meyer; Josef E. Fischer; Per-Olof Hasselgren 1. We studied the effect of sepsis and the regulation by glutamine of protein synthesis in enterocytes isolated from the small intestine of rats. 2. Sepsis was induced by caecal ligation and puncture; control...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1992) 83 (5): 607–614.
Published: 01 November 1992
... a standard operation in pigs. In a separate control group, fluxes were measured 2–3 weeks after this operation and these values were assumed to represent the normal situation. 3. One day after operation, the hindquarter effluxes of glutamine, alanine and several essential amino acids were increased ( P...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1992) 82 (6): 709–716.
Published: 01 June 1992
...M. Salleh; M. Ardawi 1. The hepatic metabolism of glutamine, alanine, ammonia, urea, glutathione and glucose was studied in rats made septic by caecal ligation and puncture and was compared with that in rats that had undergone sham operation (laparotomy). 2. Sepsis resulted in increases...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1992) 82 (5): 573–580.
Published: 01 May 1992
...M. Salleh; M. Ardawi 1. The effects of parenteral nutrition with or without glutamine supplementation and epidermal growth factor treatment (0.15 μg/g body weight) was studied in the small bowel of septic rats after 4 days. 2. Septic rats infused with glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1992) 82 (4): 419–427.
Published: 01 April 1992
...M. Salleh; M. Ardawi 1. The effects of parenteral nutrition with or without xylitol and/or glutamine supplementation were studied in septic rats after 4 days of treatment. 2. Septic rats treated with xylitol- and/or glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition survived sepsis significantly better...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1991) 81 (5): 603–609.
Published: 01 November 1991
...M. Salleh M. Ardawi 1. The metabolism of glutamine and alanine in the lung was studied in rats made septic by a caecal ligation and puncture technique. 2. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly different in septic rats, but blood pyruvate, lactate, glutamine and alanine...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1991) 81 (3): 347–355.
Published: 01 September 1991
...M. Salleh M. Ardawi; Sawsan M. Jalalah 1. The metabolism of glucose and glutamine was studied in the small intestine and the colon of rats after 4–5 weeks of hypothyroidism. 2. Hypothyroidism resulted in increases in the plasma concentrations of ketone bodies ( P < 0.05), cholesterol ( P...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1991) 81 (2): 215–222.
Published: 01 August 1991
...M. Salleh M. Ardawi 1. The effect of total parenteral nutrition with or without glutamine enrichment was studied in septic rats after 4 days of treatment. 2. Septic rats treated with glutamine-enriched total parenteral nutrition survived sepsis significantly better than other TPN-treated septic...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1991) 81 (1): 37–42.
Published: 01 July 1991
...M. Salleh; M. Ardawi 1. The effect of dexamethasone (30 μg day −1 100 g −1 body weight) on the regulation of glutamine metabolism was studied in the lungs of rats after 9 days of treatment. 2. Dexamethasone resulted in a negative nitrogen balance, and produced decreases in the blood concentrations...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1991) 80 (6): 625–631.
Published: 01 June 1991
...-ketoglutarate) is responsible for the anticatabolic effect. We infused α-ketoglutarate into anaesthetized postoperative dogs in order to investigate whether infusion of α-ketoglutarate affects the flux of glutamine and glutamate between skeletal muscle and the splanchnic bed. We used three infusion rates: 3, 10...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1991) 80 (5): 471–474.
Published: 01 May 1991
...K. N. Frayn; K. Khan; S. W. Coppack; M. Elia 1. Arteriovenous differences for alanine, glutamate and glutamine were measured across subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm muscle in normal subjects. 2. After an overnight fast, adipose tissue showed net production of alanine and glutamine and uptake...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1990) 79 (2): 139–147.
Published: 01 August 1990
...M. Salleh M. Ardawi; Yasir S. Jamal 1. The effect of dexamethasone (30 μg day −-1 100 g −-1 body weight) on the regulation of glutamine metabolism was studied in skeletal muscles of rats after 9 days of treatment. 2. Dexamethasone resulted in negative nitrogen balance, and produced increases...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1989) 77 (1): 13–20.
Published: 01 July 1989
... time measurements were made of muscle and liver protein content and synthesis in vivo , muscle protein degradation as the difference between protein synthesis and growth rates, muscle glutamine concentration and plasma insulin. 3. Fenbufen treatment alone tended to lower rectal temperature. It also...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1989) 76 (6): 643–648.
Published: 01 June 1989
...S. Albers; J. Wernerman; P. Stehle; E. Vinnars; P. Fürst 1. A commercial amino acid solution supplemented with two synthetic dipeptides, l -alanyl- l -glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glycyl- l -tyrosine (Gly-Tyr), or alternatively with isonitrogenous amounts of free alanine and glycine has been...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1988) 75 (6): 641–648.
Published: 01 December 1988
...Erich Roth; Josef Karner; Günter Ollenschläger; Judith Karner; Annette Simmel; Peter Fürst; Josef Funovics 1. The present study examined the effect of an infusion of the dipeptide alanylglutamine or of the corresponding amino acids alanine and glutamine in equimolar amounts (10 μmol min −1 kg −1...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1988) 75 (5): 463–468.
Published: 01 November 1988
...S. Albers; J. Wernerman; P. Stehle; E. Vinnars; P. Fürst 1. For the first time utilization of intravenously administered l -alanyl- l -glutamine and glycyl- l -tyrosine was investigated by means of their kinetic behaviour after bolus injection in 10 and 11 apparently healthy male subjects (age 26.6...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1988) 75 (1): 93–100.
Published: 01 July 1988
...M. Salleh M. Ardawi; May F. Majzoub; Eric A. Newsholme 1. The effect of dexamethasone (30 μg day −1 100 g −1 body wt.) on the metabolism of glucose and glutamine was studied in the small intestine of rats after 9 days of treatment. 2. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in negative nitrogen balance...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1988) 74 (2): 165–172.
Published: 01 February 1988
...M. Salleh M. Ardawi 1. The effect of thermal injury (33–35% of body surface area) on the regulation of glutamine metabolism was studied in skeletal muscles of rats 7 days after injury. 2. Injury increased the rates of glutamine production in muscle, skin and adipose tissue preparations, with muscle...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1987) 72 (1): 61–69.
Published: 01 January 1987
... in the former. 3. In our studies, we found early changes in ammoniagenesis and glutamine metabolism during acute metabolic acidosis, but not of the magnitude seen in chronic acidosis, even considering the changes in renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Exogenous glutamine loading allowed...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1986) 70 (6): 627–634.
Published: 01 June 1986
...Rita A. Klim; Marta Albajar; Reginald Hems; Dermot H. Williamson 1. The effects of chronic uraemia on glucose production and nitrogen release (urea plus ammonia formation) from alanine, glutamine or serine in isolated rat hepatocytes were studied. 2. Uraemia increased the rate of formation of urea...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1985) 69 (2): 123–133.
Published: 01 August 1985
...Marinos Elia; Graham Neale; Geoffrey Livesey 1. The effect of glucose infusion alone (175 mg/kg bolus dose followed by 4 mg min −1 kg −1 for 70 min) and in combination with forearm exercise on the exchange of glucose, alanine, glutamine and other metabolites and amino acids across forearm muscle...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1985) 68 (3): 271–282.
Published: 01 March 1985
... 1984 5 9 1984 © 1985 The Biochemical Society and the Medical Research Society 1985 alanine amino acid aspartate glutamate glutamine glycine leucine lysine man 15 N nitrogen turnover protein absorption protein synthesis wheat whole body yeast Clinical Science (1985...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1983) 64 (5): 517–526.
Published: 01 May 1983
... small. 3. Within 2 h of ingestion of steak, BCAA accounted for approx. 50% of those amino acids with a positive A—V and glutamine for up to 75% of those with a negative A—V; the negative A—V for alanine decreased to 10% of its basal value. Infusion of leucine produced a large positive A—V for leucine...
Clin Sci (Lond) (1982) 62 (3): 299–305.
Published: 01 March 1982
...M. H. N. Golden; P. Jahoor; A. A. Jackson 1. Glutamine [ 15 N]amide was infused at a steady rate of 33.34 μmol/h into seven male adult volunteers who were in the fed state and normal acid-base status. 2. Plasma glutamine amide N enrichment and urinary ammonia N enrichment rose to a constant value...
Clin Sci Mol Med (1978) 54 (5): 503–508.
Published: 01 May 1978
...A. Fine; F. I. Bennett; G. A. O. Alleyne 1. The effects of acute acid—base alterations on renal ammonia production and glutamine metabolism were studied in anaesthetized dogs. 2. Plasma glutamine rose with acidosis and also when both P co 2 and plasma HCO − 3 were raised isohydrically. 3. Blood...
Clin Sci Mol Med (1977) 53 (3): 215–220.
Published: 01 September 1977
... of protein day −1 kg −1 body weight the cumulative increment in urea nitrogen excretion averaged + 12·5 g (sem 2·8, P < 0·01) over the 5 days of glucocorticoid administration. 3. Increases in urinary urea nitrogen excretion could be related to both plasma alanine and blood glutamine changes by using...
Clin Sci Mol Med (1976) 50 (6): 493–498.
Published: 01 June 1976
...B. D. Ross 1. Gluconeogenesis from lactate or from glutamine is inhibited by 90–100% by sodium quinolinate (1 mmol/l) or 3-mercaptopicolinate (150 nmol/l) in the perfused rat kidney. l-Tryptophan is not metabolized and is without effect. 2. Lactate uptake and glucose production are inhibited...