Drug-induced cardiotoxicity has become one of the most common and detrimental health concerns, which causes significant loss to public health and drug resources. Cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) have recently achieved great attention for their vital roles in the regulation of heart health and disease, with mounting evidence linking CBRs with the pathogenesis and progression of drug-induced cardiotoxicity. This review aims to summarize fundamental characteristics of two well-documented CBRs (CB1R and CB2R) from aspects of molecular structure, signaling and their functions in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Moreover, we describe the roles of CB1R and CB2R in the occurrence of cardiotoxicity induced by common drugs such as antipsychotics, anti-cancer drugs, marijuana, and some emerging synthetic cannabinoids. We highlight the ‘yin-yang’ relationship between CB1R and CB2R in drug-induced cardiotoxicity and propose future perspectives for CBR-based translational medicine toward cardiotoxicity curation and clinical monitoring.

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