Previous studies of the Caveolin 1 (Cav1) protein and caveolae, which are lipid raft structures found on the plasma membranes of certain cells, are associated with fat metabolism disorders, inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, there have been no reports linking Cav1 to diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). In the present study, we established a relationship between Cav1 and the development of DCM. We found that compared with Cav1+/+ mice, Cav1−/− diabetic mice exhibited more severe cardiac injury, increased activation of NF-κB signaling, and up-regulation of downstream genes, including hypertrophic factors and inflammatory fibrosis factors in heart tissues. Additionally, in vitro results showed that knocking down Cav1 further activated HG-induced NF-κB signaling, increased the expression of downstream target genes, and decreased the expression of inhibitor α of NF-κB (iκBα), all of which have been linked to DCM pathogenesis. In contrast, Cav1 overexpression resulted in the opposite effects. Our study suggests that Cav1 knockdown promotes cardiac injury in DCM by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway, and targeting Cav1 may lead to the development of novel treatments for DCM.