Despite strong preclinical data supporting the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) to provide cardiorenal protection in rodent models of diabetes, the clinical evidence of their utility in treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been limited. Two major clinical trials (FIDELIO-DKD and FIGARO-DKD) including more than 13,000 patients with albuminuric CKD and Type 2 diabetes randomized to placebo or finerenone (MRA) have recently provided exciting results showing a significant risk reduction for kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we will summarize the major findings of these trials, together with post-hoc and pooled analyses that have allowed evaluation of the efficacy and safety of finerenone across the spectrum of CKD, revealing significant protective effects of finerenone against kidney failure, new-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter, new-onset heart failure, cardiovascular death, and first and total heart-failure hospitalizations. Moreover, we will discuss the current evidence that supports the combined use of MRAs with sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, either by providing an additive cardiorenal benefit or by decreasing the risk of hyperkalemia. Although the mechanisms of protection by finerenone have only been partially explored in patients, rodent studies have shed light on its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in models of kidney disease, which is one of the main drivers for testing the efficacy of finerenone in non-diabetic CKD patients in the ongoing FIND-CKD trial.

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