Ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury causes a series of serious clinical problems associated with high morbidity and mortality in various disorders, such as acute kidney injury (AKI), myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, circulatory arrest, and peripheral vascular disease. The pathophysiology and pathogenesis of I/R injury is complex and multifactorial. Recent studies have revealed that epigenetic regulation is critically involved in the pathogenesis of I/R-induced tissue injury. In this review, we will sum up recent advances on the modification, regulation, and implication of histone modifications and DNA methylation in I/R injury-induced organ dysfunction. Understandings of I/R-induced epigenetic alterations and regulations will aid in the development of potential therapeutics.