Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with hypertrophic remodeling and increased media:lumen ratio of small resistance arteries, which is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. In order to minimize increases in media:lumen ratio, hypertrophic remodeling should be accompanied by outward remodeling. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms of structural remodeling in small pial arteries (PAs) and terminal mesenteric arteries (TMAs) from obese Göttingen Minipigs with or without diabetes. Göttingen Minipigs received either control diet (lean control (LC)), high fat/high fructose/high cholesterol diet (FFC), or FFC diet with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes (FFC/STZ) for 13 months. At the end of the study (20 months), we assessed body weight, fasting plasma biochemistry, passive vessel dimensions, mRNA expression (matrix metallopeptidases 2/9 (MMP2, MMP9), tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP1), transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1), TGFβ-receptor 2 (TGFBR2), and IGF1-receptor (IGFR1) genes), and immunofluorescence in PAs and TMAs. We performed multiple linear correlation analyses using plasma values, structural data, and gene expression data. We detected outward hypertrophic remodeling in TMAs and hypertrophic remodeling in PAs from FFC/STZ animals. ROCK1 and TGM2 genes were up-regulated in PAs and TMAs from the FFC/STZ group. Passive lumen diameter (PLD) of TMAs was correlated with plasma values of glucose (GLU), fructosamine (FRA), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs). ROCK1 and TGM2 expressions in TMAs were correlated with PLD, plasma GLU, fructosamine, and TC. ROCK1 and TGM2 proteins were immunolocalized in the media of PAs and TMAs, and their fluorescence levels were increased in the FFC/STZ group. Hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia is involved in regulation of ROCK1 and TGM2 expression leading to outward remodeling of small resistance arteries in obese diabetic Göttingen Minipigs.

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