Chronic renal and vascular oxidative stress in association with an enhanced inflammatory burden are determinant processes in the development and progression of diabetic complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD), atherosclerosis and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Persistent hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activates mediators of inflammation as well as suppresses antioxidant defence mechanisms ultimately contributing to oxidative stress which leads to vascular and renal injury in diabetes. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that ROS, inflammation and fibrosis promote each other and are part of a vicious connection leading to development and progression of CVD and kidney disease in diabetes.

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