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Chemical structures of lipids found in eukaryotic cell membranes in the ord...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 1 Chemical structures of lipids found in eukaryotic cell membranes in the order of their abundance (top = most abundant) [ 35 ] The residues R are not necessarily identical and may be saturated or partially unsaturated linear aliphatic chains. More about this image found in Chemical structures of lipids found in eukaryotic cell membranes in the ord...
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Chemical structures of lipid head groups found in bacterial cell membranes ...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 2 Chemical structures of lipid head groups found in bacterial cell membranes Their abundance is highly dependent on the bacterial species as well as environmental factors. The residues R are not necessarily identical and may be saturated or partially unsaturated linear aliphatic chains [ 6... More about this image found in Chemical structures of lipid head groups found in bacterial cell membranes ...
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Cell wall and membrane(s) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria  Repr...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 3 Cell wall and membrane(s) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Reproduced with permission from Rebekka M Bamert. © Rebekka M Bamert, 2023, CC BY-NC-ND, some rights reserved. More about this image found in Cell wall and membrane(s) of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria Repr...
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Structure of two representative αAMPs, LL-37 (top) and magainin 2 (bottom),...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 4 Structure of two representative αAMPs, LL-37 (top) and magainin 2 (bottom), when bound to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, respectively Hydrophilic residues are marked by a blue ribbon, while for hydrophobic residues the ribbon is colored in red. The ... More about this image found in Structure of two representative αAMPs, LL-37 (top) and magainin 2 (bottom),...
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Barrel stave mechanism  Helical structures of alamethicin are taken from it...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 5 Barrel stave mechanism Helical structures of alamethicin are taken from its crystal structure (pdb entry 1amt). Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in blue, hydrophobic residues in red. The phospholipids of the membrane are represented by black circles (head groups) and two ... More about this image found in Barrel stave mechanism Helical structures of alamethicin are taken from it...
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Carpet mechanism  Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in blue,...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 6 Carpet mechanism Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in blue, hydrophobic residues in red. The phospholipids of the membrane are represented by black circles (head groups) and two wavy black lines (hydrocarbon tails). Letters A to G describe critical steps in the temporal pr... More about this image found in Carpet mechanism Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in blue,...
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Toroidal pore mechanism  Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored i...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 7 Toroidal pore mechanism Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in blue, hydrophobic residues in red. The phospholipids of the membrane are represented by black circles (head groups) and two wavy black lines (hydrocarbon tails). The expansion shows a cross-section of the toroida... More about this image found in Toroidal pore mechanism Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored i...
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Aggregate mechanism  Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in bl...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 8 Aggregate mechanism Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in blue, hydrophobic residues in red. The phospholipids of the membrane are represented by black circles (head groups) and two wavy black lines (hydrocarbon tails). The expansion shows that the peptides in the aggregate... More about this image found in Aggregate mechanism Hydrophilic residues of the peptides are colored in bl...
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Two-dimensional phase diagram of a mixture of an α AMP with different lipid...
Published: 26 May 2023
Figure 9 Two-dimensional phase diagram of a mixture of an α AMP with different lipid compositions [ 135 ] Peptides are depicted as yellow cylinders with red basal planes. Cylindrical lipids (i.e. with a large red head group) represent phosphatidylcholines, while inverted truncated cone-shaped lip... More about this image found in Two-dimensional phase diagram of a mixture of an α AMP with different lipid...
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Overall architecture of RC-LH1 complexes available in the protein data bank...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 1 Overall architecture of RC-LH1 complexes available in the protein data bank Tilted views of RC-LH1 complexes with the protein in surface representation (RC-L in orange, RC-M in magenta, RC-H in cyan, RC-C in green, LH1 α in yellow, LH1 β in blue, and additional peptides in red, light gre... More about this image found in Overall architecture of RC-LH1 complexes available in the protein data bank...
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Arrangements of bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in RC-LH1 complexes  (...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 2 Arrangements of bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in RC-LH1 complexes ( A ) View of the cytoplasmic face of a typical closed RC-LH1 pigment arrangement, in this case the Rps. palustris RC-LH1 16 complex. The protein is outlined in white to highlight the pigments; BChls a are in g... More about this image found in Arrangements of bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in RC-LH1 complexes (...
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Absorption spectra of RC-LH1 complexes  The coloured spectral regions denot...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 3 Absorption spectra of RC-LH1 complexes The coloured spectral regions denote the approximate spectral coverage for BChl Soret, carotenoid, BChl Q x and BChl Q y absorption. The spectra are from the authors of this study, with the exceptions of Blc. viridis and Rsp. rubrum (Dr Daniel... More about this image found in Absorption spectra of RC-LH1 complexes The coloured spectral regions denot...
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Structures of the αβBChlCrt units that associate to form LH1 complexes  ( A...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 4 Structures of the αβBChlCrt units that associate to form LH1 complexes ( A ) One αβBChl 2 Crt unit from Rps. palustris , which represents the most common structure observed in LH1 complexes. ( B ) An array of three αβBChl 2 Crt units showing how they associate to form an LH1 ring. ( C,D... More about this image found in Structures of the αβBChlCrt units that associate to form LH1 complexes ( A...
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Structure and cofactor organisation of bacterial reaction centres  ( A ) Cr...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 5 Structure and cofactor organisation of bacterial reaction centres ( A ) Crystal structure of the three-subunit RC from Rba. sphaeroides (PDB ID: 2J8C ) shown in two orientations, and a view with proteins in semi-transparent representation to reveal the bound cofactors with black arrows... More about this image found in Structure and cofactor organisation of bacterial reaction centres ( A ) Cr...
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Quinone diffusion through RC-LH1 complexes  ( A ) Semi-transparent surface ...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 6 Quinone diffusion through RC-LH1 complexes ( A ) Semi-transparent surface view of the RC from Rps. palustris with overlaid accessory quinones from all structures. Clusters of resolved quinones are labelled Q1-4. The Q A and Q B quinones are in yellow, accessory ubiquinones are in blu... More about this image found in Quinone diffusion through RC-LH1 complexes ( A ) Semi-transparent surface ...
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Resolved lipids in RC-LH1 complexes  ( A ) Lipids on the cytoplasmic face i...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 7 Resolved lipids in RC-LH1 complexes ( A ) Lipids on the cytoplasmic face in the Rps. palustris RC-LH1 16 complex (coloured as in key in panel C). ( B ) Overlaid cytoplasmic lipids from selected complexes (see key in D). ( C ) Lipids from the lumenal face of the Rps. palustris RC-LH1... More about this image found in Resolved lipids in RC-LH1 complexes ( A ) Lipids on the cytoplasmic face i...
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Protein–protein interactions between the RC and LH1  ( A ) View of the  Tch...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 8 Protein–protein interactions between the RC and LH1 ( A ) View of the Tch. tepidum RC-LH1 16 complex from the periplasmic face with residues mediating RC-to-LH1 interactions shown as sticks. Regions of interest in the green ellipses are expanded and reoriented for clarity in the four ... More about this image found in Protein–protein interactions between the RC and LH1 ( A ) View of the Tch...
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Possible assembly sequence for the dimeric RC-LH1 complex of  Rba. sphaeroi...
Published: 25 May 2023
Figure 9 Possible assembly sequence for the dimeric RC-LH1 complex of Rba. sphaeroides Assembly stages 1–9 are based on the events proposed in [ 37 , 165 ]. They denote a series of assembly intermediates, viewed from their periplasmic sides and starting with (1) the RC-H subunit, then (2) the b... More about this image found in Possible assembly sequence for the dimeric RC-LH1 complex of Rba. sphaeroi...
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Effect of FA on NF-κB signaling pathway of AR mice   (A)  The expression of...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 7 Effect of FA on NF-κB signaling pathway of AR mice (A) The expression of NF-κB signaling-related protein in lung tissue were quantified by Western blots. The ratios of (B) NF-κB/β-actin, (C) p-NF-κB/β-actin, (D) p-NF-κB/NF-κB, (E) I-κB/β-actin, (F) p-I-κB/β-actin, and (G) p... More about this image found in Effect of FA on NF-κB signaling pathway of AR mice (A) The expression of...
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The effect of Tgr5 on Immunohistochemical results in Tgr5- mice   (A)  Immu...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 3 The effect of Tgr5 on Immunohistochemical results in Tgr5- mice (A) Immunohistochemical representation of JAK1,STAT3, and IL-6. (B) Positive cell area. (C) IOD. Data are expressed as the means ± standard deviation. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple tests has been used; n =... More about this image found in The effect of Tgr5 on Immunohistochemical results in Tgr5- mice (A) Immu...
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Toxin sensitivity residues in PPP sequences  An alignment was made using 30...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 1 Toxin sensitivity residues in PPP sequences An alignment was made using 300 sequences, including bacterial PPPs (phosphoprotein phosphatases), Eukaryotic PPPs, and ‘Eukaryotic-Like’ PPPs from both Bacteria and Archaea as described in Methods. Sequences were ultimately culled (see Methods... More about this image found in Toxin sensitivity residues in PPP sequences An alignment was made using 30...
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Human PP1γ interacts with okadaic acid (OA) using 10 conserved toxin bindin...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 2 Human PP1γ interacts with okadaic acid (OA) using 10 conserved toxin binding sites Surface representation of PP1γ showing the active site defined by metal ions (purple spheres) and bound okadaic acid (yellow). Key okadaic acid binding residues are indicated with red and beige (left). On ... More about this image found in Human PP1γ interacts with okadaic acid (OA) using 10 conserved toxin bindin...
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Evolution of toxin-sensitivity in Eukaryotic PPP sequences  Reference Eukar...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 3 Evolution of toxin-sensitivity in Eukaryotic PPP sequences Reference Eukaryotic PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) sequences as described in [ 10 ] were used to search a database from a panel of 45 completely sequenced Eukaryotic genomes utilizing Eukaryotic PPP HMMs (Hidden Markov Models)... More about this image found in Evolution of toxin-sensitivity in Eukaryotic PPP sequences Reference Eukar...
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Alignment of Eukaryotic PP1 Sequences  A reference set of PP1 sequences fro...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 4 Alignment of Eukaryotic PP1 Sequences A reference set of PP1 sequences from 45 representative Eukaryotic species was collected as detailed in Methods. A MAFFT alignment with BLOSUM45 and the EINSI option was produced and is depicted here. Conserved motifs are indicated (see Figure 1 of... More about this image found in Alignment of Eukaryotic PP1 Sequences A reference set of PP1 sequences fro...
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Effects of ethanol extract of  Acacia arabica  (EEAA) bark on insulin secre...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 1 Effects of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark on insulin secretion from (A,B) clonal pancreatic BRIN BD11 β cells, as well as (C) pancreatic islets of Langerhans, (D) protein glycation, (E) insulin secretion with known stimulators or inhibitors and (F) with or without extrace... More about this image found in Effects of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark on insulin secre...
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Effects of ethanol extract of  Acacia arabica  (EEAA) bark on (A) membrane ...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 2 Effects of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark on (A) membrane potential and (B) intracellular calcium in clonal pancreatic BRIN-BD11 β-cells and, (C–G) glucose uptake by differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes, (H) starch digestion and (I) glucose diffusion in vitro The intensity... More about this image found in Effects of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark on (A) membrane ...
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Effects of ethanol extract of  Acacia arabica  (EEAA) bark on (A)  in vitro...
Published: 23 May 2023
Figure 3 Effects of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark on (A) in vitro dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-IV) enzyme, (B) glucose tolerance, (C) plasma insulin, (D) plasma DPP-IV and (E) active GLP-1 (7-36) in HFF rats Parameters were measured before and after oral administration of gluco... More about this image found in Effects of ethanol extract of Acacia arabica (EEAA) bark on (A) in vitro...
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Cu concentrations (mg Cu g −1  wet tissue) in the studied tissues, digestiv...
Published: 18 May 2023
Figure 2 Cu concentrations (mg Cu g −1 wet tissue) in the studied tissues, digestive glands and gills ( A ) Cu concentration in mussel digestive glands after 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure, and ( B ) Cu concentration in mussel gills after 3, 7, and 14 days of exposure. Data are presented as the m... More about this image found in Cu concentrations (mg Cu g −1 wet tissue) in the studied tissues, digestiv...
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Oxidant/antioxidant status in the digestive glands of mussel  Chambardia ru...
Published: 18 May 2023
Figure 3 Oxidant/antioxidant status in the digestive glands of mussel Chambardia rubens following exposure to CuONPs and ionic copper for 3, 7 and 14 days ( A ) Lipid peroxidation (LPO), ( B ) glutathione (GSH), ( C ) superoxide dismutase (SOD), ( D ) catalase (CAT), ( E ) glutathione peroxidas... More about this image found in Oxidant/antioxidant status in the digestive glands of mussel Chambardia ru...