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Keywords: translation
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2853–2869.
Published: 16 December 2021
... transcriptomes of the aged cells are beginning to be better-characterised, their translational responses remain under active investigation. Many of the translationally controlled homeostatic pathways are centred around mitigation of DNA damage, cell stress response and regulation of the proliferative potential...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (2): 867–880.
Published: 26 March 2021
... and degraded. O-GlcNAcylation happens co-translationally and protects nascent peptides from ubiquitination and degradation [ 134 ]. Using tandem bioorthogonal labeling and mass spectrometry, co-translational O-GlcNAcylation was identified on 175 nascent proteins [ 135 ], suggesting O-GlcNAc is widely used...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (5): 1429–1436.
Published: 24 September 2019
... oxidative phosphorylation, which provides ATP as a source of chemical energy, that is dependent on synthesis of these thirteen mitochondrially encoded proteins. A prerequisite for this process of translation are the mitoribosomes. The recent revolution in cryo-electron microscopy has generated high...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 209–217.
Published: 21 December 2018
... transcription and translation. Single-cell and single-molecule studies demonstrated that noise within gene expression is influenced by a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, our mechanistic understanding of this process at the molecular level is still rather limited. Further...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1615–1625.
Published: 12 November 2018
...Warren P. Tate; Andrew G. Cridge; Chris M. Brown Translational stop codons, UAA, UAG, and UGA, form an integral part of the universal genetic code. They are of significant interest today for their underlying fundamental role in terminating protein synthesis, but also for their potential utilisation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1529–1539.
Published: 12 November 2018
...Christian Bates; Simon J. Hubbard; Mark P. Ashe The regulation of translation is critical in almost every aspect of gene expression. Nonetheless, the ribosome is historically viewed as a passive player in this process. However, evidence is accumulating to suggest that variations in the ribosome can...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1073–1082.
Published: 21 September 2018
... be utilised as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. There remain, however, a number of challenges that must be overcome before EVs may be used routinely in the clinic. In this review we will discuss the translational potential of EVs and the current technologies available to isolate, purify and analyse EVs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (4): 937–944.
Published: 31 July 2018
... of proteins’ functional integrity begins co-translationally, during translation of messenger RNA into a nascent polypeptide. Growing evidence indicates that the rate at which ribosomes synthesize a polypeptide chain orchestrates co-translational folding, binding to other macromolecular entities (e.g...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (4): 1007–1014.
Published: 14 July 2017
... of the stress-induced inhibition of translation, mRNAs encoding non-essential housekeeping proteins are redirected from polysomes to stress granules (SGs) or processing bodies (P-bodies). These translationally inactive, membraneless cytoplasmic foci allow the cell to reorganise the translational pool in order...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 339–351.
Published: 13 April 2017
... degrade mRNAs as a consequence of their translation, were considered to be exceptions to this rule. Recently, however, it has become clear that many mRNAs are degraded co-translationally, and it has emerged that codon choice, by influencing the rate of ribosome elongation, affects the rate of mRNA decay...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (3): 687–688.
Published: 09 June 2016
... The Author(s) 2016 This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licence 4.0 (CC BY) . commercialization engineering biology Foundry innovation synthetic biology translation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1247–1252.
Published: 27 November 2015
... the response follows characteristic oscillatory trajectories. Here, we review different translation programs that function to precisely fine-tune the time at which various components of the innate immune response dwell between active and inactive. We discuss how different pro-inflammatory pathways are co...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1271–1276.
Published: 27 November 2015
...Muhammad Ali S. Mumtaz; Juan Pablo Couso Next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled an in-depth look into genes, transcripts and their translation at the genomic scale. The application of NGS sequencing of ribosome footprints (Ribo-Seq) reveals translation with single nucleotide (nt) resolution...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1215–1220.
Published: 27 November 2015
...Iolanda Ferro; Zoya Ignatova tRNAs are fundamental components of translation and emerging evidence places them more centrally in various other cellular processes. However, rather than being uniformly conserved, tRNA abundance is instead highly variable and adaptable. The amount of tRNA genes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1241–1246.
Published: 27 November 2015
... inhibits translation, but these are displaced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 (hnRNPC1/C2) during mitosis to stimulate translation. Finally, Unr is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation and lysine acetylation, although it is not yet known how these modifications affect Unr...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1227–1233.
Published: 27 November 2015
... are translationally up-regulated. Such mRNAs have been shown to possess longer and more structured 5′-UTRs requiring high levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase activity for efficient translation. As such there is a developing focus on targeting eIF4A as a cancer therapy. In order...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1221–1226.
Published: 27 November 2015
.... In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence showing that the protein folding process can often occur while the polypeptide is being translated, i.e. co-translationally involving the nascent polypeptide chain [ 7 – 12 ]. Although this could arise due to the basic energetics of protein folding...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 338–342.
Published: 01 June 2015
...James P.R. Schofield; Joanne L. Cowan; Mark J. Coldwell There has recently been a huge increase in interest in the formation of stable G-quadruplex structures in mRNAs and their functional significance. In neurons, local translation of mRNA is essential for normal neuronal behaviour. It has been...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 465–470.
Published: 01 June 2015
... signalling cues. Cx translation and mRNA stability is regulated by miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) such as human antigen R (HuR). In addition, several Cxs have also been suggested to contain 5′ internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements that are thought to allow cap-independent translation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 333–337.
Published: 01 June 2015
... extended to treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases in two mouse models. Concurrently studies have demonstrated the importance of the regulation of protein synthesis, translation, to the cooling response, which is also emerging as a targetable process in neurodegeneration. Through these studies...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 173–176.
Published: 23 January 2014
...Eleanna Kazana; Tobias von der Haar Translation involves interactions between mRNAs, ribosomes, tRNAs and a host of translation factors. Emerging evidence on the eukaryotic translational machinery indicates that these factors are organized in a highly optimized network, in which the levels...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 151–154.
Published: 23 January 2014
...Emma J. Mead; Rosalyn J. Masterton; Tobias von der Haar; Mick F. Tuite; C. Mark Smales Translational control is central to the gene expression pathway and was the focus of the 2013 annual Translation UK meeting held at the University of Kent. The meeting brought together scientists at all career...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 166–172.
Published: 23 January 2014
... mb446@leicester.ac.uk ). 1 8 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase microRNA (miRNA) translation The role of the archetypal member of the eIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4A) family, eIF4A1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1673–1678.
Published: 20 November 2013
... To whom correspondence should be addressed (email Damien.Hermand@unamur.be ). 13 9 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 Ste11 fission yeast transcription translation meiosis mating A universal feature of eukaryotic cells is the ability...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 913–916.
Published: 18 July 2013
..., in part by regulating mRNA translation through control of the eIF4F (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F) initiation complex. The present review discusses the role of this relationship in mTOR-regulated gene expression, and its contribution to phenotypes associated with deregulated mTOR signalling...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 880–885.
Published: 20 July 2012
... the nuclease CPSF73 for cleavage to produce histone mRNA ending immediately after the hairpin (see Figure 2 for a more comprehensive list of factors). After nuclear export, HBP interacts with SLIP1 and other translation initiation factors to form a closed-loop structure for efficient translation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 460–465.
Published: 22 March 2011
... with a pharmacological inhibitor of the TOR pathway, rapamycin, can replicate those findings and improve aging in a variety of model organisms. The proposed underlying anti-aging mechanisms are down-regulated translation, increased autophagy, altered metabolism and increased stress resistance. 1 Correspondence...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 446–450.
Published: 22 March 2011
... Society 2011 mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mRNA pulsed stable isotope labelling of proteins with amino acids in cell culture (pSILAC) rapamycin translation 5′-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a serine/threonine protein kinase...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1543–1547.
Published: 24 November 2010
...Sandip De; Saverio Brogna RPs (ribosomal proteins) are main components of the ribosome having essential functions in its biogenesis, function and structural integrity. Although most of the RP molecules are in the cytoplasm, being incorporated into translating ribosomes, some RPs have non-ribosomal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1632–1637.
Published: 24 November 2010
...Christopher Tiedje; Alexey Kotlyarov; Matthias Gaestel TTP (tristetraprolin) is an RNA-binding protein which regulates mRNA stability or translation or both. The molecular mechanisms which are responsible and which discriminate between regulation of mRNA stability and translation are not completely...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1495–1499.
Published: 24 November 2010
... which catalyse the shortening of the poly(A) tail, as discussed in this issue by Wiederhold and Passmore [ 7 ], including the highly conserved Ccr4–Not complex. Deadenylation may occur before an mRNA has been translated to store it in a translationally inactive state (as is often the case during...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1576–1580.
Published: 24 November 2010
... to influence how translation proceeds and can modify gene expression in several ways. 2A peptides are a class of sequences that, as nascent chains, pause ribosomes and drive a translation-termination reaction on a sense (proline) codon, followed by continued downstream translation. In the present paper, what...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 229–231.
Published: 19 January 2010
...Andrew J. Hamilton Mammalian erythrocytes are generally thought to lack RNA and therefore to be unable to translate new proteins in response to internal or external signals. Support for this long-standing view has accumulated from diverse studies, most of which have focused on the total content...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1261–1262.
Published: 19 November 2009
... steps required for a protein to be generated from a gene, and groups who focus on gene expression normally study a single step such as regulation of transcription, mechanisms of RNA processing or control of translation. To address this, experts were brought together at the Gene Expression in Neuronal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 284–288.
Published: 20 January 2009
...Megan Cully; Julian Downward Cellular stresses can induce a wide range of biological responses, depending on the type of stress, the type of cell and the cellular environment. Stress-mediated changes in translational output cover a broad spectrum of potential responses, including an overall...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1224–1231.
Published: 19 November 2008
... ]. It would appear that although these events play a role in miRNA-mediated repression of gene expression, they occur on already translationally repressed mRNAs. To date, evidence has been presented to support two distinct modes of miRNA-mediated translational repression, one acting at the initiation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 677–683.
Published: 22 July 2008
... © The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 cryo-electron microscopy crystal structure initiation factor 1 (IF1) ligand bending ribosome translation 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email gilbert@strubi.ox.ac.uk ). The small subunit, too...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 684–689.
Published: 22 July 2008
... to illustrate their versatility. Emphasis is placed on structurally well-defined pseudoknots that play a role in internal ribosome entry, autoregulation of initiation, ribosomal frameshifting during elongation and trans -translation. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email ib103...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 712–716.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Victoria A. Doronina; Pablo de Felipe; Cheng Wu; Pamila Sharma; Matthew S. Sachs; Martin D. Ryan; Jeremy D. Brown Some RNA and protein sequences are capable of directing changes to the course of translation from that expected from the mRNA sequence, and this process is termed translational...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 698–700.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Saverio Brogna; Preethi Ramanathan; Jikai Wen NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay) is a mechanism that degrades transcripts containing PTCs (premature translation termination codons). NMD is a translation-associated process that is expected to take place throughout the cytoplasm. However, recent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 665–670.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Eulàlia Belloc; Maria Piqué; Raúl Méndez The maternal mRNAs that drive meiotic progression in oocytes contain short poly(A) tails and it is only when these tails are elongated that translation takes place. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation requires two elements in the 3′-UTR (3′-untranslated region...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 690–693.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Emiliano P. Ricci; Ricardo Soto Rifo; Cécile H. Herbreteau; Didier Decimo; Théophile Ohlmann The full-length genomic RNA of lentiviruses can be translated to produce proteins and incorporated as genomic RNA in the viral particle. Interestingly, both functions are driven by the genomic 5′-UTR (5...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 534–536.
Published: 21 May 2008
... during cellular stress and comprise sites of translationally repressed mRNAs [ 7 ]. By sequestering and thereby inhibiting the expression of a large proportion of cellular mRNAs, SGs facilitate cell survival by enabling selective translation of the mRNAs necessary to prevent cell death. The set of SG...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 514–516.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Jikai Wen; Saverio Brogna Translation and mRNA decay are coupled processes; the link is most obvious in the case of NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay). NMD is a mechanism that drastically reduces the level of mRNA harbouring PTCs (premature translation termination codons). The defining event in NMD...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1290–1291.
Published: 25 October 2007
... translation in human mitochondria and the factors involved in this process. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email joanna.rorbach@ncl.ac.uk ). 4 7 2007 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2007 Biochemical Society 2007 human mitochondrion mitochondrial elongation factor...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (1): 22–29.
Published: 20 January 2006
... homologous protein) [or GADD153 (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 153)] and GADD34. The reduction in eIF2B function by CACH/VWM mutations alters these translationally controlled stress responses. Indeed, eIF2B dysfunction in yeast leads to the translational activation of GCN4...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (1): 12–16.
Published: 20 January 2006
... treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin [ 34 ]. Not surprisingly, among the mRNAs that are translationally repressed by rapamycin are the RP mRNAs and the eEF (eukaryotic translation elongation factor) mRNAs, which are known to contain 5′-TOP sequences. In addition, numerous other mRNAs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (6): 1544–1546.
Published: 26 October 2005
... of eIF4G to eIF4F, the complex that binds the 7-methylguanosine cap present at the 5′-end of most eukaryotic mRNAs and is required for their translation. Thus an association between osk and Cup through Bru renders osk translationally inactive. In the posterior pole, repression of osk translation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (6): 1479–1482.
Published: 26 October 2005
... divergent IRES elements can recruit ribosomes and start protein synthesis with only a minimal set of eukaryotic translation initiation factors, and how this mode of translation initiation aids viral gene amplification during early onset of innate immune responses. 1 To whom correspondence should...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (6): 1483–1486.
Published: 26 October 2005
...K.A. Spriggs; S.A. Mitchell; A.E. Willis Most eukaryotic translation initiation is thought to be dependent on the 5′-cap structure of the mRNA. It is becoming apparent, however, that the mRNAs of many genes contain IRESs (internal ribosome entry segments) within the 5′-UTR (5′-untranslated region...