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Keywords: translation
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (6): 1885–1895.
Published: 13 December 2022
...Aristeidis Panagiotis Sfakianos; Rebecca Mallory Raven; Anne Elizabeth Willis Protein synthesis is dysregulated in the majority of cancers and this process therefore provides a good therapeutic target. Many novel anti-cancer agents are directed to target the initiation stage of translation, however...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (6): 1715–1724.
Published: 09 December 2022
...Noah S. Helton; Stephanie L. Moon Maintenance of proteostasis is of utmost importance to cellular viability and relies on the coordination of many post-transcriptional processes to respond to stressful stimuli. Stress granules (SGs) are RNA–protein condensates that form after translation initiation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (5): 1447–1456.
Published: 25 October 2022
...Katherine L.B. Borden Typically, cancer is thought to arise due to DNA mutations, dysregulated transcription and/or aberrant signalling. Recently, it has become clear that dysregulated mRNA processing, mRNA export and translation also contribute to malignancy. RNA processing events result in major...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2853–2869.
Published: 16 December 2021
... transcriptomes of the aged cells are beginning to be better-characterised, their translational responses remain under active investigation. Many of the translationally controlled homeostatic pathways are centred around mitigation of DNA damage, cell stress response and regulation of the proliferative potential...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (2): 867–880.
Published: 26 March 2021
... activity of p65 [ 118 ]. O-GlcNAc enhances the activity of NF-κB signaling. Cells possess a quality control mechanism, so that the aggregated and misfolded translation products are polyubiquitinated and degraded. O-GlcNAcylation happens co-translationally and protects nascent peptides from...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (5): 1429–1436.
Published: 24 September 2019
... oxidative phosphorylation, which provides ATP as a source of chemical energy, that is dependent on synthesis of these thirteen mitochondrially encoded proteins. A prerequisite for this process of translation are the mitoribosomes. The recent revolution in cryo-electron microscopy has generated high...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 209–217.
Published: 21 December 2018
... transcription and translation. Single-cell and single-molecule studies demonstrated that noise within gene expression is influenced by a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. However, our mechanistic understanding of this process at the molecular level is still rather limited. Further...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1615–1625.
Published: 12 November 2018
...Warren P. Tate; Andrew G. Cridge; Chris M. Brown Translational stop codons, UAA, UAG, and UGA, form an integral part of the universal genetic code. They are of significant interest today for their underlying fundamental role in terminating protein synthesis, but also for their potential utilisation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (6): 1529–1539.
Published: 12 November 2018
...Christian Bates; Simon J. Hubbard; Mark P. Ashe The regulation of translation is critical in almost every aspect of gene expression. Nonetheless, the ribosome is historically viewed as a passive player in this process. However, evidence is accumulating to suggest that variations in the ribosome can...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1073–1082.
Published: 21 September 2018
... be utilised as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. There remain, however, a number of challenges that must be overcome before EVs may be used routinely in the clinic. In this review we will discuss the translational potential of EVs and the current technologies available to isolate, purify and analyse EVs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (4): 937–944.
Published: 31 July 2018
...-translationally, during translation of messenger RNA into a nascent polypeptide. Growing evidence indicates that the rate at which ribosomes synthesize a polypeptide chain orchestrates co-translational folding, binding to other macromolecular entities (e.g. chaperones and signal-recognition particle), enzymatic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (4): 1007–1014.
Published: 14 July 2017
... reprogramming. As part of the stress-induced inhibition of translation, mRNAs encoding non-essential housekeeping proteins are redirected from polysomes to stress granules (SGs) or processing bodies (P-bodies). These translationally inactive, membraneless cytoplasmic foci allow the cell to reorganise...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 339–351.
Published: 13 April 2017
... degrade mRNAs as a consequence of their translation, were considered to be exceptions to this rule. Recently, however, it has become clear that many mRNAs are degraded co-translationally, and it has emerged that codon choice, by influencing the rate of ribosome elongation, affects the rate of mRNA decay...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (3): 687–688.
Published: 09 June 2016
... BY) . commercialization engineering biology Foundry innovation synthetic biology translation The publication of the Roadmap for Synthetic Biology in 2012 and its recommendations resulted in significant U.K. Government investment in synthetic biology. Over £100 million was invested through the Research...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1215–1220.
Published: 27 November 2015
...Iolanda Ferro; Zoya Ignatova tRNAs are fundamental components of translation and emerging evidence places them more centrally in various other cellular processes. However, rather than being uniformly conserved, tRNA abundance is instead highly variable and adaptable. The amount of tRNA genes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1241–1246.
Published: 27 November 2015
... inhibits translation, but these are displaced by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 (hnRNPC1/C2) during mitosis to stimulate translation. Finally, Unr is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation and lysine acetylation, although it is not yet known how these modifications affect Unr...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1227–1233.
Published: 27 November 2015
... are translationally up-regulated. Such mRNAs have been shown to possess longer and more structured 5′-UTRs requiring high levels of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase activity for efficient translation. As such there is a developing focus on targeting eIF4A as a cancer therapy. In order...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1221–1226.
Published: 27 November 2015
.... In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence showing that the protein folding process can often occur while the polypeptide is being translated, i.e. co-translationally involving the nascent polypeptide chain [ 7 – 12 ]. Although this could arise due to the basic energetics of protein folding...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1247–1252.
Published: 27 November 2015
... the response follows characteristic oscillatory trajectories. Here, we review different translation programs that function to precisely fine-tune the time at which various components of the innate immune response dwell between active and inactive. We discuss how different pro-inflammatory pathways are co...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1271–1276.
Published: 27 November 2015
...Muhammad Ali S. Mumtaz; Juan Pablo Couso Next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled an in-depth look into genes, transcripts and their translation at the genomic scale. The application of NGS sequencing of ribosome footprints (Ribo-Seq) reveals translation with single nucleotide (nt) resolution...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 465–470.
Published: 01 June 2015
... signalling cues. Cx translation and mRNA stability is regulated by miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) such as human antigen R (HuR). In addition, several Cxs have also been suggested to contain 5′ internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements that are thought to allow cap-independent translation...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 333–337.
Published: 01 June 2015
... extended to treatment of chronic neurodegenerative diseases in two mouse models. Concurrently studies have demonstrated the importance of the regulation of protein synthesis, translation, to the cooling response, which is also emerging as a targetable process in neurodegeneration. Through these studies...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 338–342.
Published: 01 June 2015
...James P.R. Schofield; Joanne L. Cowan; Mark J. Coldwell There has recently been a huge increase in interest in the formation of stable G-quadruplex structures in mRNAs and their functional significance. In neurons, local translation of mRNA is essential for normal neuronal behaviour. It has been...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 173–176.
Published: 23 January 2014
...Eleanna Kazana; Tobias von der Haar Translation involves interactions between mRNAs, ribosomes, tRNAs and a host of translation factors. Emerging evidence on the eukaryotic translational machinery indicates that these factors are organized in a highly optimized network, in which the levels...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 151–154.
Published: 23 January 2014
...Emma J. Mead; Rosalyn J. Masterton; Tobias von der Haar; Mick F. Tuite; C. Mark Smales Translational control is central to the gene expression pathway and was the focus of the 2013 annual Translation UK meeting held at the University of Kent. The meeting brought together scientists at all career...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 166–172.
Published: 23 January 2014
... initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) helicase microRNA (miRNA) translation The role of the archetypal member of the eIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4A) family, eIF4A1, was first characterized through its requirement in translation [ 1 ] and was later identified as a component of the eIF4F translation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1673–1678.
Published: 20 November 2013
... To whom correspondence should be addressed (email Damien.Hermand@unamur.be ). 13 9 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 Ste11 fission yeast transcription translation meiosis mating A universal feature of eukaryotic cells is the ability...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 913–916.
Published: 18 July 2013
... translationally reshapes gene expression, and how this contributes to diseases such as cancer where both complexes are often deregulated. TOP mRNAs encode some, but not all, initiation factors. Does prolonged repression of mTOR signalling change the composition of the translational machinery in ways that affect...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 880–885.
Published: 20 July 2012
... correspondence should be addressed (email b.mueller@abdn.ac.uk ). 20 3 2012 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society 2012 cell cycle DNA replication histone gene expression RNA degradation RNA processing translation The packaging of DNA into chromosomes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 446–450.
Published: 22 March 2011
... Society 2011 mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mRNA pulsed stable isotope labelling of proteins with amino acids in cell culture (pSILAC) rapamycin translation 5′-terminal oligopyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a serine/threonine protein kinase...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 460–465.
Published: 22 March 2011
... with a pharmacological inhibitor of the TOR pathway, rapamycin, can replicate those findings and improve aging in a variety of model organisms. The proposed underlying anti-aging mechanisms are down-regulated translation, increased autophagy, altered metabolism and increased stress resistance. The most robust and well...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1632–1637.
Published: 24 November 2010
...Christopher Tiedje; Alexey Kotlyarov; Matthias Gaestel TTP (tristetraprolin) is an RNA-binding protein which regulates mRNA stability or translation or both. The molecular mechanisms which are responsible and which discriminate between regulation of mRNA stability and translation are not completely...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1576–1580.
Published: 24 November 2010
... to influence how translation proceeds and can modify gene expression in several ways. 2A peptides are a class of sequences that, as nascent chains, pause ribosomes and drive a translation-termination reaction on a sense (proline) codon, followed by continued downstream translation. In the present paper, what...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1543–1547.
Published: 24 November 2010
...Sandip De; Saverio Brogna RPs (ribosomal proteins) are main components of the ribosome having essential functions in its biogenesis, function and structural integrity. Although most of the RP molecules are in the cytoplasm, being incorporated into translating ribosomes, some RPs have non-ribosomal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1495–1499.
Published: 24 November 2010
.... In the case of localizing a single mRNA in order for multiple protein molecules to be synthesized at a specific locale, this circumvents the need for transport of each resulting product. These mRNAs are normally transported to the site of localized translation in a translationally repressed state...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 229–231.
Published: 19 January 2010
...Andrew J. Hamilton Mammalian erythrocytes are generally thought to lack RNA and therefore to be unable to translate new proteins in response to internal or external signals. Support for this long-standing view has accumulated from diverse studies, most of which have focused on the total content...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1261–1262.
Published: 19 November 2009
... steps required for a protein to be generated from a gene, and groups who focus on gene expression normally study a single step such as regulation of transcription, mechanisms of RNA processing or control of translation. To address this, experts were brought together at the Gene Expression in Neuronal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 284–288.
Published: 20 January 2009
...Megan Cully; Julian Downward Cellular stresses can induce a wide range of biological responses, depending on the type of stress, the type of cell and the cellular environment. Stress-mediated changes in translational output cover a broad spectrum of potential responses, including an overall...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1224–1231.
Published: 19 November 2008
... ]. It would appear that although these events play a role in miRNA-mediated repression of gene expression, they occur on already translationally repressed mRNAs. To date, evidence has been presented to support two distinct modes of miRNA-mediated translational repression, one acting at the initiation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 690–693.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Emiliano P. Ricci; Ricardo Soto Rifo; Cécile H. Herbreteau; Didier Decimo; Théophile Ohlmann The full-length genomic RNA of lentiviruses can be translated to produce proteins and incorporated as genomic RNA in the viral particle. Interestingly, both functions are driven by the genomic 5′-UTR (5...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 665–670.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Eulàlia Belloc; Maria Piqué; Raúl Méndez The maternal mRNAs that drive meiotic progression in oocytes contain short poly(A) tails and it is only when these tails are elongated that translation takes place. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation requires two elements in the 3′-UTR (3′-untranslated region...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 712–716.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Victoria A. Doronina; Pablo de Felipe; Cheng Wu; Pamila Sharma; Matthew S. Sachs; Martin D. Ryan; Jeremy D. Brown Some RNA and protein sequences are capable of directing changes to the course of translation from that expected from the mRNA sequence, and this process is termed translational...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 698–700.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Saverio Brogna; Preethi Ramanathan; Jikai Wen NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay) is a mechanism that degrades transcripts containing PTCs (premature translation termination codons). NMD is a translation-associated process that is expected to take place throughout the cytoplasm. However, recent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 677–683.
Published: 22 July 2008
... in a number of different processes key to translation. Not only in accommodation of tRNAs into the A site [ 48 ], but also in the process of translocation between the A and P sites [ 19 , 49 ], the bending of tRNAs has been observed directly ( Figures 3 a and 3 b). Indeed, for translocation, this appears...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 684–689.
Published: 22 July 2008
... to illustrate their versatility. Emphasis is placed on structurally well-defined pseudoknots that play a role in internal ribosome entry, autoregulation of initiation, ribosomal frameshifting during elongation and trans -translation. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email ib103...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 534–536.
Published: 21 May 2008
... by I-dsRNA occurs both by reducing mRNA levels and by inhibiting of translation. This finding has important functional consequences for hyperediting by ADARs. The observation that I-dsRNA specifically interacted with SG components, which are associated with repression of gene expression, led us...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 514–516.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Jikai Wen; Saverio Brogna Translation and mRNA decay are coupled processes; the link is most obvious in the case of NMD (nonsense-mediated mRNA decay). NMD is a mechanism that drastically reduces the level of mRNA harbouring PTCs (premature translation termination codons). The defining event in NMD...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1290–1291.
Published: 25 October 2007
... translation in human mitochondria and the factors involved in this process. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email joanna.rorbach@ncl.ac.uk ). 4 7 2007 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2007 Biochemical Society 2007 human mitochondrion mitochondrial elongation factor...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (1): 12–16.
Published: 20 January 2006
... mRNAs become translationally repressed, but RPS6 appears to be constitutively dephosphorylated in these cells [ 14 ]. Furthermore, in several cell lines, rapamycin causes complete inhibition of S6K activity, but, in the same cell lines, this inhibitor has only moderate effects on TOP mRNA translation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (1): 22–29.
Published: 20 January 2006
... C. Marty-Double C. Ann. Neurol. 2005 doi:10.1002/ana.20573 The reduction in eIF2B function by CACH/VWM mutations alters these translationally controlled stress responses. Indeed, eIF2B dysfunction in yeast leads to the translational activation of GCN4, in the absence of GCN2...