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Keywords: transcription
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (3): 1227–1243.
Published: 13 June 2022
...Hailey E. Edwards; Daniel A. Gorelick Proteins that contain basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and Per-Arnt-Sim motifs (PAS) function as transcription factors. bHLH–PAS proteins exhibit essential and diverse functions throughout the body, from cell specification and differentiation in embryonic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2483–2493.
Published: 08 November 2021
...Caroline A. Austin; Ian G. Cowell; Mushtaq M. Khazeem; Dawn Lok; Huei Teng Ng Transcription is regulated and mediated by multiprotein complexes in a chromatin context. Transcription causes changes in DNA topology which is modulated by DNA topoisomerases, enzymes that catalyse changes in DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2639–2653.
Published: 08 November 2021
... for the spreading of the transcriptionally repressive H3K27me3 mark to neighboring nucleosomes resulting in heterochromatin boundaries [ 23 ]. Recent studies have shown that all three members of the PRC family of proteins work together in a hierarchical manner to regulate the transcriptional landscape during...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (3): 1325–1336.
Published: 01 June 2021
...Søren Lykke-Andersen; Jérôme O. Rouvière; Torben Heick Jensen ARS2/SRRT is an essential eukaryotic protein that has emerged as a critical factor in the sorting of functional from non-functional RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts. Through its interaction with the Cap Binding Complex (CBC...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (3): 1299–1309.
Published: 01 June 2021
... 29 4 2021 30 4 2021 © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2021 enhancers genome organization optical nanoscopy single-molecule approaches transcription Enhancers are cis -regulatory elements that activate target...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (2): 867–880.
Published: 26 March 2021
...-GlcNAcylation on the CTD of Pol II prevents premature processing of the nascent mRNA during transcription initiation. RNA splicing happens co-transcriptionally, and most introns are removed before the addition of poly-A tails. However, occasionally some introns remain after splicing and polyadenylation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (4): 1569–1581.
Published: 29 July 2020
... a transcription apparatus including a eukaryote-like RNA polymerase along with a combination of virus-specific, and host-related transcription factors homologous to the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB. Despite its high impact, the molecular basis and temporal regulation of ASFV transcription is not well...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (3): 1121–1128.
Published: 05 May 2020
... ) Preferential binding of HIF-1 to transcriptionally active loci determines cell-type specific response to hypoxia . Genome Biol. 10 , R113 10.1186/gb-2009-10-10-r113 22 Schodel , J. , Mole , D.R. and Ratcliffe , P.J. ( 2013 ) Pan-genomic binding of hypoxia-inducible transcription...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (6): 1597–1608.
Published: 26 November 2019
... of their active counterparts, assembly of signaling hubs, or modulation of protein localization. One such pseudokinase, named Tra1 in yeast and transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP) in mammals, is the only member lacking all catalytic residues within the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (3): 847–860.
Published: 13 May 2019
... processes, such as transcription. The current state of research on mycobacteriophage-derived anti-TB treatment is reviewed in comparison with inhibitors from other phages, and with focus on transcription as the host target process. 5 11 2018 2 4 2019 8 4 2019 © 2019 The Author(s...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 679–689.
Published: 05 March 2019
...Amber Riaz-Bradley Transcription in cyanobacteria involves several fascinating features. Cyanobacteria comprise one of the very few groups in which no proofreading factors (Gre homologues) have been identified. Gre factors increase the efficiency of RNA cleavage, therefore helping to maintain...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 399–410.
Published: 07 February 2019
...Alexis Verger; Didier Monté; Vincent Villeret Mediator is a large multiprotein complex conserved in all eukaryotes that plays an essential role in transcriptional regulation. Mediator comprises 25 subunits in yeast and 30 subunits in humans that form three main modules and a separable four-subunit...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 411–423.
Published: 01 February 2019
...Kevin Kramm; Christoph Engel; Dina Grohmann In all domains of life, the regulation of transcription by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RNAPs) is achieved at the level of initiation to a large extent. Whereas bacterial promoters are recognized by a σ-factor bound to the RNAP, a complex set...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 339–350.
Published: 15 January 2019
...Hamed Mosaei; John Harbottle Transcription, the first phase of gene expression, is performed by the multi-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP). Bacterial RNAP is a validated target for clinical antibiotics. Many natural and synthetic compounds are now known to target RNAP, inhibiting various stages...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 209–217.
Published: 21 December 2018
... transitions [ 67 , 68 , 70 ]. RNA polymerase initially forms a complex with the promoter in which the DNA is double-stranded (closed), thereby preventing transcription. Promoter melting must occur to form the transcriptionally active open complex in which the DNA strands are separated. This enables RNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 219–228.
Published: 21 December 2018
...David Forrest Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is accomplished in all domains of life by the multisubunit RNA polymerase (msRNAP). Accordingly, the msRNAP is an ancient enzyme that is ubiquitous across all cellular organisms. Conserved in absolutely all msRNAPs is the catalytic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 279–285.
Published: 09 February 2016
... in inositide metabolism, nuclear signalling and transcriptional regulation. 30 11 2015 © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited 2016 IPMK ipk2 ArgR inositide multikinase transcription gene expression Inositides represent a large family of secondary messengers...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 1123–1128.
Published: 11 August 2014
... in the production of toxic RNA and/or protein or causes transcriptional repression and silencing of the host gene. Although the molecular mechanisms of expansion diseases are not well understood, mounting evidence suggests that transcription through expanded repeats plays an essential role in disease pathology...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1660–1665.
Published: 20 November 2013
...Miriam Sansó; Robert P. Fisher CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) ensure directionality and fidelity of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. In a similar fashion, the transcription cycle is governed by a conserved subfamily of CDKs that phosphorylate Pol II (RNA polymerase II) and other substrates...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1666–1672.
Published: 20 November 2013
... concomitantly with polII (RNA polymerase II) transcription, it has become evident that QC acts at the transcriptional level in addition to degrading aberrant RNAs. In the present review, we discuss mechanisms that allow cells to co-transcriptionally initiate the removal of RNAs as well as down-regulate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1673–1678.
Published: 20 November 2013
... by the Yamamoto laboratory as a suppressor of the uncontrolled meiosis driven by a pat1 mutant. Numerous studies from this laboratory and others have established the role of the Ste11 transcription factor as the master regulator of the switch between proliferation and differentiation in fission yeast...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1008–1016.
Published: 18 July 2013
... of the structural biology of the CDK family has been extended by determination of structures for members of the transcriptional CDK and CDK-like kinase branches of the extended family. We include these recent structures in the present review and consider them in the light of current models for CDK activation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 727–740.
Published: 23 May 2013
...-modifying activities that are thought to contribute to transcriptional repression and maintain heterochromatic regions of the genome. In contrast with DNA methylation, which is found broadly across vertebrate genomes, non-methylated DNA is concentrated in regions known as CGIs (CpG islands). Recently...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (2): 542–547.
Published: 21 March 2013
...Charles J. Dorman DNA supercoiling and NAPs (nucleoid-associated proteins) contribute to the regulation of transcription of many bacterial genes. The horizontally acquired SPI ( Salmonella pathogenicity island) genes respond positively to DNA relaxation, they are activated and repressed by the Fis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 356–361.
Published: 29 January 2013
... shibatae RNAP) in complex with dsDNA (double-stranded DNA) constitutes a new piece of information helping the understanding of the mechanisms for DNA stabilization at the position downstream of the catalytic site during transcription. In Archaea, in contrast with Eukarya, downstream DNA stabilization...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 846–849.
Published: 20 July 2012
...Steven West Splicing is a key process for mRNA maturation, particularly in higher eukaryotes where most protein-coding transcripts contain multiple introns. It is achieved by the concerted action of five snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs) and hundreds of accessory proteins that form the spliceosome...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 762–767.
Published: 20 July 2012
... transcription The miRNA family of endogenous short single-stranded RNAs down-regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Sequence-specific miRNA binding at recognition sites in the 3′-UTRs (untranslated regions) of target mRNAs leads to translational repression and/or mRNA destabilization via...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 311–323.
Published: 21 March 2012
... transducer and activator of transcription 1)] [ 39 ] that remodel target gene chromatin into transcriptionally inactive facultative heterochromatin. Curiously, however, CtBP can also work as a transcriptional activator. In Drosophila , CtBP has been shown to activate the transcription of several Wnt target...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (1): 1–5.
Published: 19 January 2012
.... Central to this is the coupling of cAMP elevation to the mobilization of two C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) family transcription factors, resulting in the induction of the SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3) gene, which attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokine signalling in VECs. These novel...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (1): 25–30.
Published: 19 January 2011
... step towards the understanding of Rpo13's role in archaeal transcription. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email nabrescia@cicbiogune.es ). 29 9 2010 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 archaeon RNA polymerase Rpo13...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (1): 122–127.
Published: 19 January 2011
...Dina Grohmann; Daniel Klose; Daniel Fielden; Finn Werner The complex organization of the transcription machinery has been revealed mainly by biochemical and crystallographic studies. X-ray structures describe RNA polymerases and transcription complexes on an atomic level, but fail to portray...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1598–1601.
Published: 24 November 2010
... genes and some genes not transcriptionally regulated by Myc. It is important to note that induced formation of the methyl cap is not simply a result of the Myc transcriptional programme since Myc mutants that are completely defective for transcriptional activity remain competent to regulate methyl cap...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1543–1547.
Published: 24 November 2010
... functions when they are off ribosomal subunits. Notably, in eukaryotes, RPs are also present at transcription sites and some of these proteins have a function in transcription and pre-mRNA processing of specific genes. Although the consensus is that the proteins found at these sites are isolated RPs...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 217–222.
Published: 19 January 2010
.... cyclin D1 nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) RNA processing Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) transcription The CCND1 gene-encoded cyclin D1 protein is tightly regulated by a variety of signalling pathways at the transcriptional level as well as post-transcriptionally, through modulation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1147–1160.
Published: 19 November 2009
... calcium signalling neurodegeneration neuroprotection N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) oxidative stress transcription NMDARs [NMDA ( N -methyl- D -aspartate) receptors] are cation-passing channels gated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. They play a central role in synaptic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (6): 1375–1377.
Published: 19 November 2009
... of the transcription factor zif268 (egr1). Hence, it is predicted that zif268 may regulate transcription of genes associated with glutamate receptors and/or GABA A Rs. It turns out that receptor regulation by zif268 tends to be indirect. Induction of zif268 in neurons leads to altered expression of proteasome subunit...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 12–17.
Published: 20 January 2009
..., nucleic acid binding, catalysis and specific regulatory interactions with transcription factors. The recent development of methods to reconstitute archaeal RNAP from recombinant materials in conjunction with structural information of multisubunit RNAPs present a potent opportunity to investigate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 52–57.
Published: 20 January 2009
...Bart de Koning; Fabian Blombach; Hao Wu; Stan J.J. Brouns; John van der Oost MBF1 (multiprotein bridging factor 1) is a highly conserved protein in archaea and eukaryotes. It was originally identified as a mediator of the eukaryotic transcription regulator BmFTZ-F1 ( Bombyx mori regulator of fushi...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 18–22.
Published: 20 January 2009
... enzyme shows close structural similarity to eukaryotic RNAP, particularly to polymerase II, and can therefore be used as model for analyses of the eukaryotic transcriptional machinery. The cleft loops in the active centre of RNAP were deleted and modified to unravel their function in interaction...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1160–1164.
Published: 19 November 2008
... metalloregulatory protein nitric oxide regulatory protein transcription transition metal cofactor Transcriptional regulators containing transition metal cofactors provide effective mechanisms for controlling gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. Haem and iron–sulfur cofactors with roles...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1262–1266.
Published: 19 November 2008
..., including Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cancer, highlights the importance of zinc-regulated gene expression. Mechanisms elucidated in bacteria and yeast provide examples of different possible modes of zinc-sensitive gene regulation, involving the zinc-regulated binding of transcriptional...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 619–624.
Published: 22 July 2008
.... So, what determines whether a particular rDNA gene is transcriptionally active or silent? Active (transcriptionally competent or transcriptionally active) and inactive (silent) rDNA genes have distinctive chromatin states, therefore chromatin context might influence the transcriptional activity...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 595–598.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Laura M. Elsby; Stefan G.E. Roberts Transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the assembly of the general transcription factors at the promoter to form a pre-initiation complex. The general transcription factor TF (transcription factor) IIB plays a central role in the assembly of the pre...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 625–628.
Published: 22 July 2008
...Richard D. Palermo; Helen M. Webb; Andrea Gunnell; Michelle J. West The EBNA 2 (Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 2) transcription factor is essential for B-cell transformation by the cancer-associated EBV (Epstein–Barr virus) and for the continuous proliferation of infected cells. EBNA 2 activates...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 590–594.
Published: 22 July 2008
...-dependent RNA 3′-end formation in vivo [ 6 , 25 ], indicating that processing occurs co-transcriptionally. The CTD plays a major role in co-ordinating transcription with co-transcriptional RNA processing in expression of protein-coding genes (recently reviewed in [ 26 , 27 ]. In mammalian pol II...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 754–757.
Published: 22 July 2008
...David C. Grainger; Stephen J.W. Busby A major goal in the study of gene regulation is to untangle the transcription-regulatory networks of Escherichia coli and other ‘simple’ organisms. To do this we must catalogue the binding sites of all transcription factors. ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 776–779.
Published: 22 July 2008
... functional states of the transcribing enzyme RNA polymerase and its attendant activator proteins. In bacteria, major adaptive responses use an enhancer-dependent RNA polymerase, activated for transcription by a class of ATPases that remodel initial promoter complexes to form transcriptionally proficient open...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 543–545.
Published: 21 May 2008
... with the onset of term and preterm labour. COX - 2 gene regulation is controlled at various levels including gene transcription and post-transcriptional events. The present article focuses on the complexity of COX - 2 gene regulation and reviews current concepts that highlight: (i) transcription of COX - 2...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 505–507.
Published: 21 May 2008
... in a number of cellular processes including signal transduction, transcription, RNA metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. In the present review, we summarize the functions of Sam68 as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression, with particular relevance to cancer...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 537–539.
Published: 21 May 2008
.... In common with pre-mRNAs, newly transcribed pre-snRNAs are co-transcriptionally capped at the 5′-end [ 4 ]. Transcription and RNA-processing reactions have been found to be closely linked in vivo [ 5 ]. At the heart of this lies the repetitive CTD (C-terminal domain) of Pol II largest subunit, which...