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Keywords: phosphorylation
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (4): 1207–1224.
Published: 23 August 2022
.... Individuals with CDD suffer infantile onset, drug-resistant seizures, severe neurodevelopmental impairment and profound lifelong disability. The CDKL5 protein is a kinase that regulates key phosphorylation events vital to the development of the complex neuronal network of the brain. Pathogenic variants...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (5): 2015–2027.
Published: 14 October 2020
... by Leucine carboxyl methyltransferase-1 (LCMT1) that utilizes S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) as the methyl donor and removed by protein phosphatase methylesterase 1 (PME1). For PP2A, methylation dictates regulatory subunit selection and thereby downstream phosphorylation signaling. Intriguingly, there are four...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (4): 1297–1308.
Published: 21 August 2020
... to be of functional significance, in particular phosphorylation and ubiquitination. In this review, we discuss the molecular control of planar polarity and the molecular ecology of the core planar polarity intercellular complexes. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of understanding the spatial control of post...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (6): 1271–1277.
Published: 03 November 2017
... on control of trafficking processes via the action of the SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) family of proteins, in particular their regulation by phosphorylation. We will describe how these proteins are controlled in a range of regulated trafficking events...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (1): 141–146.
Published: 15 February 2017
... of the distinct pathogenic LRRK2 mutants and propose a testable working hypothesis by which the various mutants may affect membrane trafficking events in identical ways by culminating in increased phosphorylation of select substrate proteins known to be crucial for membrane trafficking between specific cellular...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 426–433.
Published: 01 June 2015
... to the huge bulky structure of RyR and there is growing evidence that, together, they provide a sophisticated and integrated system for regulating RyR channel gating. This review focuses on those proteins that are relevant to phosphorylation of RyR channels with particular reference to the cardiac isoform...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 502–507.
Published: 01 June 2015
..., including mechanical stimulation, oxygen-glucose deprivation, a rise of [Ca 2+ ] i , caspase cleavage and phosphorylation. Within this review, the regulation of Panx1 channels is discussed, with a focus on how they may contribute to platelet function. 1 These authors contributed equally...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (3): 519–523.
Published: 01 June 2015
... hemichannels can upon different stimuli open towards the extracellular matrix and allow transport of molecules such as fluorescent dyes and ATP. A range of phosphorylated amino acids have been detected in the C-terminus of Cx43 and their physiological role has been intensively studied both in the gap...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (2): 280–286.
Published: 07 April 2015
...Liesbeth Aerts; Bart De Strooper; Vanessa A. Morais PINK1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1] is a serine/threonine kinase targeted to mitochondria and implicated in early-onset recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). Through the phosphorylation of its downstream targets...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (5): 1435–1440.
Published: 18 September 2014
... of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PDK1 has emerged and these comprise serine/threonine as well as tyrosine phosphorylation, subcellular localization, regulator binding and conformation status. In the present review, we discuss how various molecular mechanisms are together responsible...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (5): 1349–1355.
Published: 18 September 2014
... be addressed (email atoker@bidmc.harvard.edu ). 30 5 2014 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 Akt breast cancer cancer phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylation signalling substrate The serine/threonine protein kinase Akt, also known...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (5): 1396–1400.
Published: 18 September 2014
...@york.ac.uk ) 30 4 2014 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 insulin membrane fusion phosphorylation Sec1/Munc18 protein soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) In the absence of insulin, glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 1147–1151.
Published: 11 August 2014
... acquired diverse functions suggesting that cellular signalling is important for their functional diversification. Indeed, ELAV/Hu proteins harbour many phosphorylatable amino acids. In the present article, we review our current knowledge about phosphorylation of ELAV/Hu proteins and how phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 816–821.
Published: 11 August 2014
... contribution highlighting the regulation of MST2 signalling by frequently observed oncogenic perturbations affecting mitogenic pathways. In particular, we review the role of RAS isoforms and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt in the regulation of MST2 activity by phosphorylation. We also put the emphasis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 784–790.
Published: 11 August 2014
...Pablo G. Jambrina; Olga Bohuszewicz; Nicolae-Viorel Buchete; Walter Kolch; Edina Rosta Protein phosphorylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications in cell regulatory mechanisms. Dimerization plays also a crucial role in the kinase activity of many kinases, including RAF, CDK2...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (5): 1207–1218.
Published: 23 September 2013
... and discovery. 1 email junge@uos.de 16 8 2013 © 2013 The Authors 2013 cell respiration electron transport molecular bioenergetics phosphorylation photosynthesis proton transport Early research into ‘bioenergetics’, the energy supply for life, started in the 18th Century...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1078–1082.
Published: 18 July 2013
... that they lack at least one conserved catalytic residue in their kinase domain. However, emerging evidence suggest that some pseudokinases, even without the ability to phosphorylate substrates, are regulators of multiple cellular signalling pathways. Among these is KSR1 (kinase suppressor of Ras 1), which...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1089–1095.
Published: 18 July 2013
...Maria-Belen Gonzalez-Sanchez; Francesco Lanucara; Matthew Helm; Claire E. Eyers A significant number of proteins in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes are known to be post-translationally modified by the addition of phosphate, serving as a means of rapidly regulating protein function. Phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1008–1016.
Published: 18 July 2013
... kinase to be determined and, since then, structures of other members of the CDK family, alone, in complex with regulatory proteins and in differing phosphorylation states, have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating protein kinase activity. Recently, our knowledge...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 67–71.
Published: 29 January 2013
... with phosphorylation-dependent signalling pathways. Intriguingly, each site of palmitoylation is regulated by distinct zDHHCs (palmitoyl acyltransferases) and APTs (acyl thioesterases). This supports that different mechanisms may control substrate specificity by zDHHCs and APTs even within the same target protein...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (5): 1158–1162.
Published: 19 September 2012
... and cell-based assays for LRRK2. LRRK2 is phosphorylated on Ser 910 , Ser 935 , Ser 955 and Ser 973 in the N-terminal domain of the enzyme, and these sites of phosphorylation are likely to be regulated by upstream enzymes in an LRRK2 kinase-activity-dependent manner. Knowledge of these phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (5): 1102–1110.
Published: 19 September 2012
...Evy Lobbestael; Veerle Baekelandt; Jean-Marc Taymans The PD (Parkinson's disease) protein LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) occurs in cells as a highly phosphorylated protein, with the majority of phosphosites clustering in the region between the ankyrin repeat and leucine-rich repeat domains...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 698–703.
Published: 20 July 2012
...Guy Lippens; Laziza Amniai; Jean-Michel Wieruszeski; Alain Sillen; Arnaud Leroy; Isabelle Landrieu We describe our efforts to combine in vitro enzymatic reactions with recombinant kinases to phosphorylate the neuronal tau protein, and NMR spectroscopy to unravel the resulting phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (1): 124–128.
Published: 19 January 2012
... Biochemical Society 2012 Hippo signalling pathway Mps one binder protein (MOB) phosphorylation protein kinase signal transduction protein–protein interaction Various molecular processes need to be deregulated in cancer cells in order to ensure the long-term survival of cancerous material...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (1): 287–289.
Published: 19 January 2012
...Yuan Yan Sin; George S. Baillie Chronic neurohormonal stimulation can have direct adverse effects on the structure and function of the heart. Heart failure develops and progresses as a result of the deleterious changes. It is well established that phosphorylation of class II HDAC5 (histone...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (1): 210–214.
Published: 19 January 2012
... increases in cAMP, Hsp20 is phosphorylated on Ser 16 by PKA (protein kinase A). This covalent modification is required for many of its cardioprotective effects. Both Hsp20 expression levels and its phosphorylation on Ser 16 are increased in ischaemic myocardium. Transgenic mouse models with cardiac-specific...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 495–499.
Published: 22 March 2011
...@cancer.org.uk ). 8 11 2010 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 Akt cancer lipid biosynthesis mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) phosphorylation sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein (SREBP) The expression of genes encoding enzymes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1632–1637.
Published: 24 November 2010
... understood so far, but are clearly dependent on p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/MK (MAPK-activated protein kinase) 2/3-mediated phosphorylation of TTP. To learn more about these mechanisms, phosphorylation-dependent TTP-interacting proteins could be of great interest. Many interacting partners...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (5): 1247–1250.
Published: 24 September 2010
... (email M.Marcello@liverpool.ac.uk or M.White@liverpool.ac.uk ). 8 7 2010 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Biochemical Society 2010 gene expression regulation inflammatory response nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) oscillation phosphorylation single-cell imaging The NF...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 977–980.
Published: 26 July 2010
... 10 Ittner L.M. Ke Y.D. Gotz J. Phosphorylated Tau interacts with c-Jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) in Alzheimer disease J. Biol. Chem. 2009 284 20909 20916 11 Serrano L. Montejo de Garcini E. Hernandez M.A. Avila J. Localization...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 1016–1020.
Published: 26 July 2010
...Diane P. Hanger; Selina Wray Deposition of highly phosphorylated tau in the brain is the most significant neuropathological and biochemical characteristic of the group of neurodegenerative disorders termed the tauopathies. The discovery of tau fragments in these diseases suggests that tau cleavage...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 1012–1015.
Published: 26 July 2010
..., membrane-associated tau is dephosphorylated at serine/threonine residues, suggesting that the phosphorylation state of tau regulates its intracellular trafficking. Dephosphorylation of tau may increase the association of tau with trafficking proteins which target tau to the plasma membrane. Thus...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 981–987.
Published: 26 July 2010
...Katerina Papanikolopoulou; Stylianos Kosmidis; Sofia Grammenoudi; Efthimios M.C. Skoulakis The heterogeneous pathology of tauopathies and the differential susceptibility of different neuronal types to WT (wild-type) and mutant tau suggest that phosphorylation at particular sites rather than...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 1006–1011.
Published: 26 July 2010
... because the protein contains 441 amino acids and has poor signal dispersion. We have set out to dissect the phosphorylation patterns of tau in order to understand better its role in the aggregation process and microtubule-binding regulation. Our current knowledge on the functional consequences of specific...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (4): 967–972.
Published: 26 July 2010
... to as tauopathies. Comparative biochemistry of the tau aggregates shows that they differ in both tau isoform phosphorylation and content, which enables a molecular classification of tauopathies. In conditions of dementia, NFD (neurofibrillary degeneration) severity is correlated to cognitive impairment and is often...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (2): 545–551.
Published: 22 March 2010
... that dysfunctional axonal transport contributes to this synaptopathy. Thus investigating hyperphosphorylated tau that is dysfunctional in AD could illuminate whether and how they are significant in prion disease. We observed no differences in the levels of phosphorylated tau (using MC1, PHF-1 and CP13 antibodies...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 116–131.
Published: 19 January 2010
... DNA repair phosphorylation small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ubiquitin Cells have developed elaborate mechanisms for the rapid and sensitive sensing and repair of damaged DNA, collectively designated DDR (DNA­-damage response) [ 1 ]. In general, different types of DNA lesion result...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (5): 937–953.
Published: 21 September 2009
...David Komander Protein ubiquitination and protein phosphorylation are two fundamental regulatory post-translational modifications controlling intracellular signalling events. However, the ubiquitin system is vastly more complex compared with phosphorylation. This is due to the ability of ubiquitin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 627–641.
Published: 22 July 2009
...Louise N. Johnson Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases regulate signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell-cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 723–726.
Published: 22 July 2009
... in the human genome. 8 5 2009 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Biochemical Society 2009 gene duplication horizontal gene transfer phosphorylation protein evolution protein network protein structure In the 150 years since On the Origin of Species [ 1 ] was published...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (3): 561–568.
Published: 20 May 2009
... and phosphorylation. Among these regulatory processes, AID phosphorylation at Ser 38 has been a focus of particularly intense study and debate. In the present paper, we discuss recent biochemical and mouse genetic studies that begin to elucidate the functional significance of AID Ser 38 phosphorylation in the context...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 874–878.
Published: 19 September 2008
... phosphorylation and SUMOylation, or via modulation of the conjugation/deconjugation machinery abundance or activity. The present review gives an overview of the connections between stress and SUMOylation, the underlying molecular mechanisms and their effects on cellular functions. 1 To whom correspondence...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 864–867.
Published: 19 September 2008
... phosphorylation The AP-1 (activator protein-1) transcription complex consists of a whole collection of dimeric bZip (basic region leucine zipper motif)-containing transcription factors. Its best-studied components are the members of the Fos (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2) and Jun (c-Jun, JunB and JunD...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 483–490.
Published: 21 May 2008
... with the phosphorylation of splicing factors. How the remaining large number of these substances affect splicing is not yet fully understood. The emergence of these low-molecular-mass substances provides not only probes for studying alternative pre-mRNA splicing, but also opens the door to the possible harnessing...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1013–1017.
Published: 25 October 2007
... series of phosphorylations for the expression of their optimum activities. However, in cells, the dynamics of these modifications are quite distinct. Based on experimental evidence, it is argued that the underlying mechanisms determining these divergent behaviours relate to the very different manner...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1312–1313.
Published: 25 October 2007
... in mechanotransduction in intact muscle. focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mechanobiology mechanotransduction phosphorylation striated muscle Mechanical factors exert a key influence on the phenotype of striated muscle [ 1 ]. This control is well illustrated by the reversible alterations in size and contractile...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1269–1272.
Published: 25 October 2007
... (BDNF) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) long-term facilitation pattern-sensitivity phosphorylation plasticity The neural system controlling breathing exhibits a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to physiological challenges [ 1 ]. For example, chronic exposure to low oxygen (hypoxia...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (4): 724–728.
Published: 20 July 2007
... and in coupling to G-proteins, signalling pathways activated in response to VIP, agonist-dependent receptor down-regulation, phosphorylation and internalization as well as pharmacological consequences of receptor hetero-dimerization. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email ilanger@ulb.ac.be...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 188–192.
Published: 20 March 2007
... 10 (PTEN) phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate metabolism phosphorylation reactive oxygen species Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-2 (SHIP2) PtdIns(3,4,5) P 3 and PtdIns(3,4) P 2 are two important lipid signals that have overlapping, but distinctive roles. Independent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 199–203.
Published: 20 March 2007
...) phosphorylation protein kinase B (PKB) It is therefore tempting to speculate that the higher PIP 3 levels seen upon insulin stimulation of p85 KO cells are due to reduced PIP 3 phosphatase activity. Indeed, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) activity is decreased in p85α...