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Schematic diagram of the interplay between the i-AAA and mitochondrial prot...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the interplay between the i-AAA and mitochondrial protein import pathways based on using yeast S. cerevisiae as a model. Here, only the relevant subunits of TOM40, TIM22, TIM23, and MIA40 import complexes are shown. Thick red arrows indicate that i-AAA proteinase ... More about this image found in Schematic diagram of the interplay between the i-AAA and mitochondrial prot...
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Schematic diagram showing the relationships between i-AAA and OXPHOS comple...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 2. Schematic diagram showing the relationships between i-AAA and OXPHOS complex subunits. Based on yeast S. cerevisiae , the complex subunits are shown at their rough positions within their respective complexes, and the assembly factors are shown below each complex. The colour representat... More about this image found in Schematic diagram showing the relationships between i-AAA and OXPHOS comple...
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Schematic diagram for the interplay between i-AAA proteinase and mitochondr...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 3. Schematic diagram for the interplay between i-AAA proteinase and mitochondrial lipid metabolism and signalling. ( A ). Cardiolipin and PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) synthesis. i-AAA plays a role in regulating cardiolipin and PE synthesis by degradation of the Ups/PRELI-lp lipid transpor... More about this image found in Schematic diagram for the interplay between i-AAA proteinase and mitochondr...
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Key modules in trafficking to the ciliary membrane.   Left top , parts of t...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 1. Key modules in trafficking to the ciliary membrane. Left top , parts of the primary cilium. The primary cilium transduces external stimuli into intracellular signaling directing tissue homeostasis. CP, Ciliary pocket; DA, Distal appendage or Transition fiber; TZ, Transition zone; PM, P... More about this image found in Key modules in trafficking to the ciliary membrane. Left top , parts of t...
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Structural basis of TULP3 interactions with phosphoinositides and IFT-A.  (...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 2. Structural basis of TULP3 interactions with phosphoinositides and IFT-A. ( A ) Cartoon showing the IFT-A interacting N-terminal region and the PI(4,5)P 2 /cargo-interacting tubby domain of TULP3 (Uniprot O75386). ( B ) Residues at the PI(4,5)P 2 binding regions (green) of the tubby dom... More about this image found in Structural basis of TULP3 interactions with phosphoinositides and IFT-A. (...
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IFT-A cryo-EM structures and different known conformations.  ( A ) Subunits...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 3. IFT-A cryo-EM structures and different known conformations. ( A ) Subunits of the human IFT-A complex showing WD, TPR domains, and Zinc fingers. ( B ) Monomeric human IFT-A complex (PDB 8FGW ) shows lariat-like elongated conformation [ 93 ]. ( C ) Monomeric IFT-A complex conformation i... More about this image found in IFT-A cryo-EM structures and different known conformations. ( A ) Subunits...
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Natural MG degrader systems.  ( A ) Crystal structure (left, PDB:  2P1Q ) a...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 1. Natural MG degrader systems. ( A ) Crystal structure (left, PDB: 2P1Q ) and schematic diagram (right) of the auxin-sensing complex. In the crystal structure, the E3 ligase TIR1 is shown in gray surface representation with 40% transparency. Auxin is shown in orange spheres. The substrat... More about this image found in Natural MG degrader systems. ( A ) Crystal structure (left, PDB: 2P1Q ) a...
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IMiDs-enhanced CRBN and neo-substrate interaction.  ( A ) The MG activity o...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 2. IMiDs-enhanced CRBN and neo-substrate interaction. ( A ) The MG activity of lenalidomide, a representative of IMiDs. The basal protein–protein interaction is significantly enhanced by the ligand. ( B ) Mathematical analysis of lenalidomide with a lower affinity to CRBN. The same protein... More about this image found in IMiDs-enhanced CRBN and neo-substrate interaction. ( A ) The MG activity o...
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CR8-stabilized CDK12–DDB1 interaction.  ( A ) The MG activity of CR8. The b...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 3. CR8-stabilized CDK12–DDB1 interaction. ( A ) The MG activity of CR8. The basal protein–protein interaction is significantly enhanced by CR8. ( B ) Schematic diagram of the DDB1–CR8–CDK12–cyclin K complex. The chemical moiety of CR8 bound at the CDK12 active site pocket (pointed by the a... More about this image found in CR8-stabilized CDK12–DDB1 interaction. ( A ) The MG activity of CR8. The b...
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Summary of the approaches taken to mitigate cryoEM sample preparation issue...
Published: 12 June 2024
Figure 1. Summary of the approaches taken to mitigate cryoEM sample preparation issues. The protein sample (HA trimer, PDB 7VDF ) is shown within the liquid thin film. The film's boundaries, representing the AWI, are denoted by two horizontal blue lines. The panels (left to right) represent adso... More about this image found in Summary of the approaches taken to mitigate cryoEM sample preparation issue...
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Timeline of the structural elucidation of chemokine receptors.  In 2007 the...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 1. Timeline of the structural elucidation of chemokine receptors. In 2007 the first GPCR structure was solved that showed the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) bound to the inverse agonist Carazolol in an inactive conformation (red) via X-ray crystallograllography. This structure was followed... More about this image found in Timeline of the structural elucidation of chemokine receptors. In 2007 the...
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Overview of the X-ray structures of CCR7, CCR2, CCR9, CXCR2, and β2AR in co...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 2. Overview of the X-ray structures of CCR7, CCR2, CCR9, CXCR2, and β2AR in complex with their synthetic intracellular allosteric modulators. Cmp2105 (CCR7 — PDB: 6QZH ), CCR2-RA-[ R ] (CCR2 — PDB: 5T1A ), Vercirnon (CCR9 — PDB: 5LWE ), 00767013 (CXCR2 — PDB: 6LFL ), and Cmpd- 15PA (β... More about this image found in Overview of the X-ray structures of CCR7, CCR2, CCR9, CXCR2, and β2AR in co...
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Binding mode comparison between synthetic intracellular allosteric modulato...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 3. Binding mode comparison between synthetic intracellular allosteric modulators in CCR7 (upper left), CCR2 (upper right), CCR9 (middle left), CXCR2 (middle right), and β2AR (bottom left). Common for each small molecule is an interaction with a conserved motif between TM7 and Helix 8 (oran... More about this image found in Binding mode comparison between synthetic intracellular allosteric modulato...
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Sequence alignment of the chemokine receptor family including CCR, CXCR, an...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 4. Sequence alignment of the chemokine receptor family including CCR, CXCR, and XCR receptors. The sequence alignments of TM7 and Helix 8 shows a consensus motif ranging from His/Arg 7.45 till Arg/Lys 8.51 . Highest sequence similarity is depicted in dark red to lowest similarity in light... More about this image found in Sequence alignment of the chemokine receptor family including CCR, CXCR, an...
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Chemokine recognition sites.  Structure of CCR1-CCL15L or CCL15(26–92) (PDB...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 5. Chemokine recognition sites. Structure of CCR1-CCL15L or CCL15(26–92) (PDB: 7VL9 ) used to depict various chemokine recognition sites. Surface representation of bound CCL15 with all four CRSs mapped along with their respective interacting receptor residues. CRS1 and CRS2 are depicted i... More about this image found in Chemokine recognition sites. Structure of CCR1-CCL15L or CCL15(26–92) (PDB...
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Chemokine-receptor interaction matrix.  ( A ) Tabular view of receptor resi...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 6. Chemokine-receptor interaction matrix. ( A ) Tabular view of receptor residues which interact with chemokines among five different CCRs. The first column (CCR residues) lists all interacting residues from TM1 till TM7. The second column (Total CCR interacting residues) summarizes the re... More about this image found in Chemokine-receptor interaction matrix. ( A ) Tabular view of receptor resi...
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Comparison of G-protein binding in CCR5 (full active), CCR5 (apo) and CX3CR...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 7. Comparison of G-protein binding in CCR5 (full active), CCR5 (apo) and CX3CR1. ( A ) Comparison of the G-protein bound structures reveals that the G-protein in the CCR5 apo structure (red, PDB: 7F1S ) is almost identical positioned compared with the fully active CCR5 structure (yellow, ... More about this image found in Comparison of G-protein binding in CCR5 (full active), CCR5 (apo) and CX3CR...
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Emerging therapeutic targets in the mechanically remodeled solid TME.  TME ...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 1. Emerging therapeutic targets in the mechanically remodeled solid TME. TME components can be targeted to: ( a ) decrease ECM fiber thickening and alignment [ 45 , 90 , 106 , 107 ], ( b ) minimize blood vessel leakage and ECM swelling to decrease IFP [ 108 , 109 ], ( c ) make the ECM matr... More about this image found in Emerging therapeutic targets in the mechanically remodeled solid TME. TME ...
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Cancer risk, dedifferentiation and the diffusion entropy rate (SR).  ( a ) ...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 1. Cancer risk, dedifferentiation and the diffusion entropy rate (SR). ( a ) Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained by a stem-cell population that can self-renew or give rise to transit amplifying multi-or-unipotent progenitors, which can also divide asymmetrically to generate of their ki... More about this image found in Cancer risk, dedifferentiation and the diffusion entropy rate (SR). ( a ) ...
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Estimating differentiation activity of TFs and the CancerStemID algorithm. ...
Published: 10 June 2024
Figure 2. Estimating differentiation activity of TFs and the CancerStemID algorithm. ( a ) Estimation of a TF's differentiation activity (TFA) in single-cells benefits from the construction of TF-regulons. A TF-regulon is a pool of genes, enriched for direct and indirect binding targets of the TF... More about this image found in Estimating differentiation activity of TFs and the CancerStemID algorithm. ...
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Biochem Soc Trans (2024) BST20230742.
Published: 30 May 2024
... , P. , Cai , H.-Y. , Li , S. et al. ( 2023 ) The tRNA-GCN2-FBXO22-axis-mediated mTOR ubiquitination senses amino acid insufficiency . Cell Metab. 35 , 2216 – 2230 10.1016/j.cmet.2023.10.016 89 Livneh , I. , Cohen-Kaplan , V. , Fabre , B. , Abramovitch , I...
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MATR3 is a disordered DNA- and RNA-binding protein.  (Top) Domain map of MA...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 1. MATR3 is a disordered DNA- and RNA-binding protein. (Top) Domain map of MATR3. The zinc finger motifs (Z1-2), RNA recognition motifs (RRM1-2), and nuclear localization sequence (NLS) are highlighted. Adult-onset neurological disorder associated mutations are shown in black, childhood-on... More about this image found in MATR3 is a disordered DNA- and RNA-binding protein. (Top) Domain map of MA...
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Involvement of MATR3 in physiological processes.  Cellular view of MATR3-li...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 2. Involvement of MATR3 in physiological processes. Cellular view of MATR3-linked processes. In the nucleus, MATR3 is implicated in transcription, DNA damage response, splicing, mRNA export, nuclear retention of hyper-edited RNA, and regulation of paraspeckle formation. In the cytoplasm, M... More about this image found in Involvement of MATR3 in physiological processes. Cellular view of MATR3-li...
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Structural representation of a bacterial microcompartment shell and its she...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 1. Structural representation of a bacterial microcompartment shell and its shell protein building blocks. ( A ) BMC shells are composed of ( B ) BMC-H (Pfam00936), BMC-T (2xPfam00936) either single (BMC-T s ) and/or stacked dimers of trimers (BMC-T D ), and BMC-P (Pfam03319). Natively, the... More about this image found in Structural representation of a bacterial microcompartment shell and its she...
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Representations of the structures of synthetic BMC shells determined by cry...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 2. Representations of the structures of synthetic BMC shells determined by crystallography and cryo-EM and their shell protein compositions. BMC shells are composed of BMC-H (Pfam00936), BMC-T (2xPfam00936) either single (BMC-T s ) and/or dimer stacked (BMC-T D ), and BMC-P (Pfam03319). More about this image found in Representations of the structures of synthetic BMC shells determined by cry...
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Reducing the complexity of synthetic shells from their native context.  ( A...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 3. Reducing the complexity of synthetic shells from their native context. ( A ) Overview of the components of a typical native BMC super locus containing a transcriptional regulator (orange), the enzymatic core (purple and red), the structural shell proteins (blue, green, and yellow) formi... More about this image found in Reducing the complexity of synthetic shells from their native context. ( A...
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Model of a synthetic shell with functionalized building blocks that were en...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 4. Model of a synthetic shell with functionalized building blocks that were engineered for metabolic engineering purposes. Protein cargo can be genetically fused to the C-terminus of WTH (cargo will be displayed on exterior surface of shell) or CPH (cargo will be encapsulated within the lu... More about this image found in Model of a synthetic shell with functionalized building blocks that were en...
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Schematics of possible applications for synthetic BMCs in metabolic enginee...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 5. Schematics of possible applications for synthetic BMCs in metabolic engineering. ( A ) Encapsulating multiple metabolic enzymes can prevent toxic intermediate formation or alleviate bottlenecks, enhancing pathway flux. Enzymes can be targeted by fusing to CPHs ( A and D ) or utilizing... More about this image found in Schematics of possible applications for synthetic BMCs in metabolic enginee...
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Comparison between normal Trp uptake mediated by System L transporter and h...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 1. Comparison between normal Trp uptake mediated by System L transporter and high-affinity Trp uptake into cells. ( A ) Normal Trp uptake mediated by System L transporter. ( B ) High-affinity Trp uptake mediated by a novel Trp transporter system. More about this image found in Comparison between normal Trp uptake mediated by System L transporter and h...
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Structure of human TrpRS.  ( A ) Schematic representation of human full-len...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 2. Structure of human TrpRS. ( A ) Schematic representation of human full-length and mini TrpRSs. The extra NH 2 -terminal domain of human TrpRS is shown in black. Numbers on the left and right correspond to the NH 2 - and COOH-terminal residues relative to human full-length TrpRS, respect... More about this image found in Structure of human TrpRS. ( A ) Schematic representation of human full-len...
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A schematic model of the regulatory mechanism of TrpRS-mediated high-affini...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 3. A schematic model of the regulatory mechanism of TrpRS-mediated high-affinity Trp uptake upon IFN-γ treatment of human cells. IFN-γ stimulates expression of both IDO1 and TrpRS. Up-regulated levels of IDO1 leads to Trp depletion, which in turn induces up-regulation of ATF4 expression. S... More about this image found in A schematic model of the regulatory mechanism of TrpRS-mediated high-affini...
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Simplified overview of the pathways involved in the biosynthesis, metabolis...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 1. Simplified overview of the pathways involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism and transport of DA, highlighting the targets of current therapeutic approaches designed to enhance DA signaling. DA is synthesized by PAH, TH and AADC, and is then packed into synaptic vesicles by VMAT2 and re... More about this image found in Simplified overview of the pathways involved in the biosynthesis, metabolis...
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Overview of novel therapies that aim to increase DA synthesis and signaling...
Published: 30 May 2024
Figure 2. Overview of novel therapies that aim to increase DA synthesis and signaling, focusing on cell-, nucleic acid-, and protein-based strategies, and small molecules. Cell-based strategies aim to increase DA by replenishing DA producing neurons in patients with neurodegeneration. These cells... More about this image found in Overview of novel therapies that aim to increase DA synthesis and signaling...
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Schematic overview of protocols to develop 3D cardiac cellular models from ...
Published: 23 May 2024
Figure 1. Schematic overview of protocols to develop 3D cardiac cellular models from hPSCs. (1) Generation directly from hPSCs. These cardiac organoid models include cardioids, mixed cardioids and multi-chamber cardioids. This process mainly involves manipulating the WNT signalling pathway. For c... More about this image found in Schematic overview of protocols to develop 3D cardiac cellular models from ...
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Overview of 3D cardiac cellular models and their applications.  3D cardiac ...
Published: 23 May 2024
Figure 2. Overview of 3D cardiac cellular models and their applications. 3D cardiac cellular models derived from hPSCs are depicted, showcasing diverse approaches for generating these structures. Each model possesses distinct characteristics that may be beneficial for studying specific types of c... More about this image found in Overview of 3D cardiac cellular models and their applications. 3D cardiac ...