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Keywords: evolution
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (5): 1997–2006.
Published: 16 August 2021
... agreement with Max Planck Digital Library. cell proliferation evolution neocortex development neural progenitor cells neurogenesis The neocortex is the largest part of the mammalian cerebral cortex and is the seat of higher cognitive functions, such as thinking and language in human...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (5): 1941–1951.
Published: 01 September 2020
... 8 2020 6 8 2020 © 2020 The Author(s) 2020 This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND) . cis-regulator evolution homology RNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (5): 1533–1542.
Published: 23 October 2019
... ( renwick.dobson@canterbury.ac.nz ) 2 8 2019 30 9 2019 2 10 2019 © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2019 evolution fitness molecular adaptation protein evolution It is common to assume natural selection...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 239–249.
Published: 15 January 2019
...: Ludovic Sauguet ( ludovic.sauguet@pasteur.fr ) 25 10 2018 30 11 2018 7 12 2018 © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2019 classification DNA polymerases DNA replication evolution PolD proofreading DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (2): 285–294.
Published: 27 February 2018
...). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2018 evolution light-harvesting complexes membrane complexes photosynthesis photosystems structure The photochemical functions of oxygenic photosynthesis are performed by two photosystems, designated photosystem I...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 253–259.
Published: 09 February 2016
..., inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited 2016 calcium evolution inositol metabolism phosphate The fine organization of a biological system is constantly challenged by the always-changing...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (6): 1172–1176.
Published: 27 November 2015
...David Heckmann How did the complex metabolic systems we observe today evolve through adaptive evolution? The fitness landscape is the theoretical framework to answer this question. Since experimental data on natural fitness landscapes is scarce, computational models are a valuable tool to predict...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (5): 1011–1017.
Published: 09 October 2015
... adenosine 5′-triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter evolution substrate-binding protein (SBP) substrate specificity ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous in bacteria and function predominantly in substrate uptake as opposed to efflux. A common feature of these uptake...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1715–1719.
Published: 17 November 2014
...Carlos Gancedo; Carmen-Lisset Flores; Juana M. Gancedo The present article addresses the possibilities offered by yeasts to study the problem of the evolution of moonlighting proteins. It focuses on data available on hexokinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that moonlights in catabolite repression...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1684–1691.
Published: 17 November 2014
... Q45A MarA has low specificity and binds to 42 of the 64 binding sites. adaptive conflict bifunctional protein evolution gene duplication moonlighting In the early days of molecular biology, each gene was expected to encode a single protein that serves a single function [ 1 , 2...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1704–1708.
Published: 17 November 2014
..., in addition to a primary well-known function, they have a secondary function, generally unrelated to the primary function. antibodies complementarity determining regions evolution moonlighting protein structure The traditional dogma of biology has been that DNA is copied into RNA which...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 985–988.
Published: 11 August 2014
... and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. catalysis evolution glycolysis origin of life origin of metabolism pentose phosphate pathway replicator RNA We are far from understanding the origin of life, as several of the problems associated with it are yet...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (3): 625–630.
Published: 22 May 2014
... in the mechanism of regeneration provides evidence for the importance of local evolution, rather than a purely ancestral mechanism. The three-finger protein called Prod1 is discussed in the present article as an exemplar of this approach. 1 Correspondence may be addressed to either author (email j.brockes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 473–478.
Published: 20 March 2014
... relationships have also been obtained from parasitic protists. These organisms, including kinetoplastid and apicomplexan parasites, are particularly interesting, both because of their relevance as pathogens and because of their phylogenetic diversity and host–parasite co-evolution which has led to specialized...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 295–301.
Published: 20 March 2014
... medium, provided the original work is properly cited. cAMP cardiac arrhythmia caveolin 3 evolution Popeye-domain-containing protein (Popdc) TREK-1 The Popdc (Popeye-domain-containing) gene family has been discovered independently by two groups that aimed at identifying novel genes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1383–1391.
Published: 20 November 2013
... Biochemical Society 2013 adaptation bacteriophage clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated (Cas) system draft genome evolution S. thermophilus is a domesticated lactic acid bacterium widely used in the formulation of industrial dairy starter...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1532–1535.
Published: 20 November 2013
... in the inclusion of Alu exon into mature transcripts. Moreover, I present the mechanism that represses such a major inclusion of Alu exons and instead enables a gradual evolution of Alu elements into new exons. 1 email j.ule@ucl.ac.uk 13 8 2013 © 2013 The author(s) 2013 This is an Open...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1392–1400.
Published: 20 November 2013
... homologous with viral or plasmid DNA and integrated into the CRISPR loci. Most of the Cas proteins evolve under relaxed purifying selection and some underwent dramatic structural rearrangements during evolution. In many cases, CRISPR–Cas system components are replaced either by homologous or by analogous...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (5): 1137–1140.
Published: 23 September 2013
... email birte.hoecker@tuebingen.mpg.de 5 6 2013 © 2013 The Authors 2013 (βα) 8 -barrel computational design evolution flavodoxin-like fold fold fragments protein chimaera Protein Engineering: New Approaches and Applications: A joint Biochemical Society/Protein Society...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1017–1022.
Published: 18 July 2013
... kinase (CASK) Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) evolution intron membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) phylogeny Despite the tremendous increase in the size of the CASK gene over the course of animal evolution, the changes in the number of introns have been minimal, and most...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 876–880.
Published: 18 July 2013
.... evolution nematode parasite RNA interference (RNAi) virus C. elegans can mount RNAi responses to dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) originating either transcribed from its own genome (endo-RNAi) or from triggers derived independently of its own genome (exo-RNAi). Both pathways in C. elegans have...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 362–367.
Published: 29 January 2013
... in all three domains of life, is the outcome of convergent evolution. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email f.werner@ucl.ac.uk ). 23 10 2012 Table 1 Evolutionary conservation of RNAP subunits and transcription factors in the three domains of life Homologous...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 416–420.
Published: 29 January 2013
... by the newly found Nanoarchaeota and Korarchaeota. 1 email karl.stetter@biologie.uni-regensburg.de 26 10 2012 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 Archaea Bacteria cultivation evolution phylogeny thermophile Table 1 Examples of genes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 458–462.
Published: 29 January 2013
.... 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email rwhitaker@life.illinois.edu ). 15 11 2012 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 chromosomal marker exchange evolution recombination Sulfolobus islandicus Molecular Biology of Archaea...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (6): 1512–1516.
Published: 21 November 2012
... al. [ 23 ] explored the evolution of the resistant strain in a non-transitive form of the RPS game. Non-transitivity ensures that the growth of each of the three strains is controlled through a negative-feedback loop. If, for example, the resistant strain starts to grow more quickly, then it replaces...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (5): 1032–1037.
Published: 19 September 2012
... be addressed to either of these authors (email nsdgroot@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk or madanm@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk ). 10 7 2012 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 Biochemical Society 2012 amyloid chaperone evolution protein aggregation These observations, however, raise crucial...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (5): 1398–1402.
Published: 21 September 2011
... to proteins containing the motif of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors. Here, we discuss the evolution of genes encoding SCPs and describe mechanisms by which they and genes with Kunitz motifs might have evolved from genes with WFDC motifs. We can also demonstrate an expansion of the WFDC locus with 0.6 Mb...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (5): 1206–1209.
Published: 24 September 2010
...Igor Goryanin Modelling and optimization principles become a key concept in many biological areas, especially in biochemistry. Definitions of objective function, fitness and co-evolution, although they differ between biology and mathematics, are similar in a general sense. Although successful...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (5): 1210–1214.
Published: 24 September 2010
... the constraint of minimizing space utilization. For any biological process with multiple steps that compete for control in series, evolution by natural selection will tend to even out the control exerted by each step. This is for two reasons: (i) shared control maximizes the flux for minimum protein...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (3): 783–788.
Published: 24 May 2010
... has remained elusive. Plastids evolved by endosymbiosis and during the establishment of a permanent endosymbiosis they retained elements of the bacterial cell-division machinery. Through evolution the photosynthetic eukaryotes have increased dramatically in complexity, from single-cell green algae...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (2): 422–427.
Published: 22 March 2010
..., Jerusalem 91904, Israel. 5 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email Ada.Yonath@weizmann.ac.il ) 16 8 2009 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Biochemical Society 2010 evolution Mycobacterium smegmatis proto-ribosome ribosome symmetrical region...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 787–791.
Published: 22 July 2009
... (Qa, Qb, Qc and R), each reflecting their position in the four-helix bundle. Further refinement of these main types resulted in the identification of 20 distinct conserved groups, which probably reflect the original repertoire of a proto-eukaryotic cell. We analysed the evolution of the SNARE...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 792–795.
Published: 22 July 2009
...John W. Whitaker; Glenn A. McConkey; David R. Westhead HGT (horizontal gene transfer) is recognized as an important force in bacterial evolution. Now that many eukaryotic genomes have been sequenced, it has become possible to carry out studies of HGT in eukaryotes. The present review compares...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 796–803.
Published: 22 July 2009
...Anthony J. Baines Spectrin is a cytoskeletal protein thought to have descended from an α-actinin-like ancestor. It emerged during evolution of animals to promote integration of cells into tissues by assembling signalling and cell adhesion complexes, by enhancing the mechanical stability...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (3): 561–568.
Published: 20 May 2009
... of the evolution of this mode of AID regulation and the potential roles that it may play in activated B-cells during a normal immune response. Antibodies comprise IgH (Ig heavy chain) and IgL (Ig light chain). The N-terminal V (variable) region of IgH and IgL comprise the antigen-binding portion of antibody...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (1): 12–17.
Published: 20 January 2009
... the molecular mechanisms of transcription. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email werner@biochem.ucl.ac.uk ). 25 9 2008 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2009 Biochemical Society 2009 archaeon evolution RNA polymerase transcription The structure and function...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (6): 1359–1367.
Published: 19 November 2008
... dystrophin evolution nesprin spectrin synaptic nuclear envelope protein (SYNE) Nesprin-1 [also known as SYNE (synaptic nuclear envelope protein) 1 or enaptin] is a gigantic protein (∼1 MDa), genetic defects in which cause cerebellar ataxia in humans [ 1 ]. Nesprin-2 [also known as SYNE2...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 502–504.
Published: 21 May 2008
... The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 alternative polyadenylation alternative splicing embryonic lethal abnormal visual system (ELAV) erect wing gene ( ewg gene) evolution nervous system development ELAV (embryonic lethal abnormal visual system) from...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1317–1320.
Published: 25 October 2007
... of mycobacteria have undergone evolution by deletion of segments of DNA, allowing Mycobacterium bovis and other species to emerge from the M. tuberculosis complex, disproving the previously accepted theories. Deletions also affect the pathogenic potential of different lineages of M. tuberculosis . Over shorter...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (6): 1252–1255.
Published: 25 October 2006
... the evolution of the CYP (cytochrome P450) superfamily in insects can be proposed. There are four large clades of insect P450 genes that existed before the divergence of the class Insecta and that are also represented by CYP families in vertebrates: the CYP2 clade, the CYP3 clade, the CYP4 clade...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (4): 569–573.
Published: 21 July 2006
...H.S. Malik; J.J. Bayes Centromeric DNA evolves rapidly, ranging in size and complexity over several orders of magnitude. Traditional attempts at studying centromeres have left unexplained the causes underlying this complexity and rapid evolution. Instead of directly studying centromeric DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (4): 526–530.
Published: 21 July 2006
... and chimpanzees demonstrates very high rates of evolution of the fine-scale structure of the recombination landscape. In the light of these observations, we suggest possible resolutions of the hotspot paradox. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email mcvean@stats.ox.ac.uk ). 16 3 2006...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (4): 780–784.
Published: 01 August 2005
... riboflavin synthase appear to have diverged early in the evolution of Archaea from a common ancestor. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email markus.fischer@ch.tum.de ). 12 4 2005 © 2005 The Biochemical Society 2005 archaea eubacteria evolution reaction mechanism...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (1): 220–224.
Published: 01 February 2005
.... The work described provides detailed insight into the process of catalytic protein evolution. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email msaier@ucsd.edu ). 7 10 2004 © 2005 The Biochemical Society 2005 energy coupling evolution phosphotransferase system secondary...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (1): 47–50.
Published: 01 February 2005
... of the various hydrogenosomes and their hydrogenases will contribute to an understanding of the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, and provide clues to the evolutionary origin(s) of the Fe-hydrogenase. 1 email j.hackstein@science.ru.nl 3 11 2004 © 2005 The Biochemical Society 2005...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (3): 677–680.
Published: 01 June 2003
... should be addressed (e-mail j.ladbury@biochem.ucl.ac.uk ). Molecular Mechanisms and Manipulation in Archaea, a Biochemical Society-sponsored meeting held at The University of Nottingham, 30–31 January 2003 4 February 2003 © 2003 Biochemical Society 2003 calorimetry evolution...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (3): 674–676.
Published: 01 June 2003
... held at The University of Nottingham, 30–31 January 2003 31 January 2003 © 2003 Biochemical Society 2003 Archaea evolution lagging strand proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) replication Abbreviations used: MCM, mini-chromosome maintenance; ORC, origin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (3): 563–571.
Published: 01 June 2003
... structures of the four Escherichia coli enzymes involved in the production of pantothenate have been determined. We describe the use of comparative analyses of the sequences and structures to identify distant homologues of the four enzymes in an attempt to understand the evolution of the pathway. We conclude...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (1): 159–161.
Published: 01 February 2003
... e-mail s.p.r.rose@open.ac.uk Signalling the Future, a Biochemical Society-sponsored meeting held at University of Liverpool, Liverpool, 4–6 September 2002 6 September 2002 Copyright 2003 Biochemical Society 2003 evolution exaptation metaphors intercellular...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2002) 30 (4): 662–667.
Published: 01 August 2002
... and qCu A NOR (qNOR that contains Cu A at the electron entry site). It is proposed that the NORs and the various cytochrome oxidases have evolved by modular evolution, in view of the structure of their electron donor sites. qNOR is further proposed to be the ancestor of all NORs and cytochrome oxidases...