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Keywords: epigenetics
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (3): 1215–1225.
Published: 17 May 2022
...So Young Park; Jungnam Cho; Dong-Hoon Jeong Plant small RNAs (sRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that are implicated in various regulatory processes involving post-transcriptional gene silencing and epigenetic gene regulation. In epigenetic regulation, sRNAs are primarily involved in RNA-directed DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (3): 1179–1190.
Published: 06 May 2022
...Peter Sarkies DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification with a very long evolutionary history. However, DNA methylation evolves surprisingly rapidly across eukaryotes. The genome-wide distribution of methylation diversifies rapidly in different lineages, and DNA methylation is lost altogether...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (2): 723–736.
Published: 14 March 2022
...Marco Morselli; Giorgio Dieci Recent investigations on the non-protein-coding transcriptome of human cells have revealed previously hidden layers of gene regulation relying on regulatory non-protein-coding (nc) RNAs, including the widespread ncRNA-dependent regulation of epigenetic chromatin states...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (1): 583–596.
Published: 25 February 2022
... in the patterns of DNA methylation have the potential to provide for epigenetic inheritance of traits. Contemporary epigenomic technologies provide information beyond sequence variation and could supply alternative sources of trait variation for improvement in crops such as sorghum. Yet, compared with other...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (1): 487–497.
Published: 07 January 2022
... found to this epidemic. Over the last decade, there has been a tremendous advancement in understanding the science of epigenetics, as well as a rise in public interest in learning more about the influence of diet and lifestyle choices on the health of an individual. Without affecting the underlying DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2549–2560.
Published: 09 December 2021
... of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY) . chromatin epigenetics lncRNA tandem repeat X-chromosome inactivation X - i nactive- s pecific t ranscript ( Xist ) is a l ong n on- c oding RNA (lncRNA) responsible for X - C hromosome...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2639–2653.
Published: 08 November 2021
... of the Biochemical Society 2021 chromatin cryo-electron microscopy epigenetics eukaryotic gene expression transcription Eukaryotic cells pack their DNA (∼6 billion bases) into the small volume of the nucleus (1 × 10 2 –1 × 10 5  µm 3 ) by organizing their DNA into complex but defined structures...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (5): 2431–2441.
Published: 28 October 2021
...-translational modification. Perturbation to these networks leads to genomic instability and disease, presenting epigenetic proteins as key therapeutic targets. This mini-review will describe progress in mapping the combinatorial histone PTM landscape, and recent chemical biology approaches to map histone...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (5): 2073–2079.
Published: 13 October 2021
... the expression of piRNA precursors, at least in Drosophila germlines. This review is focused on recent advances how the piRNA pathway deals with this genetic conflict. epigenetics gene silencing piRNA transposons Genome integrity of eukaryotes is constantly challenged by parasitic transposable...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (4): 1867–1879.
Published: 02 August 2021
... BY) . chromatin CTCF epigenetics genomic imprinting non-coding RNA Diverse genetic and epigenetic systems of mono-allelic expression have evolved in mammals, together controlling thousands of genes [ 1 ]. These mono-allelic gene expression mechanisms provide unique identities to cells...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (3): 1041–1054.
Published: 22 June 2021
... 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND) . cancer enhancer epigenetics gene expression and regulation H3K4 histone lysine methyltransferase Precise gene regulation is required for the correct cellular identity in multicellular organisms. However, aberrant gene expression often leads to detrimental...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (2): 867–880.
Published: 26 March 2021
... ( yzhu@uga.edu ) or Gerald W. Hart ( gerald.hart@uga.edu ) 15 1 2021 1 3 2021 3 3 2021 © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2021 DNA synthesis and repair epigenetics O-GlcNAc post translational modification...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (1): 71–77.
Published: 22 February 2021
... epigenetic memory elements of PRC2-mediated silencing. As these marks are stored locally in the chromatin, PRC2-based memory is a cis -acting system. A key feature of stable epigenetic memory in cis is PRC2-mediated, self-reinforcing feedback from K27-methylated histones onto nearby histones in a read-write...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (6): 2891–2902.
Published: 18 December 2020
...Mélanie A. Eckersley-Maslin The concept of cellular plasticity is particularly apt in early embryonic development, where there is a tug-of-war between the stability and flexibility of cell identity. This balance is controlled in part through epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic plasticity dictates how...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (4): 1609–1621.
Published: 14 August 2020
...William A. Flavahan Epigenetic processes converge on chromatin in order to direct a cell's gene expression profile. This includes both maintaining a stable cell identity, but also priming the cell for specific controlled transitions, such as differentiation or response to stimuli. In cancer...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (4): 1751–1763.
Published: 11 August 2020
...Alexandra D. Gurzau; Marnie E. Blewitt; Peter E. Czabotar; James M. Murphy; Richard W. Birkinshaw The structural maintenance of chromosomes hinge domain containing protein 1 (SMCHD1) is a large multidomain protein involved in epigenetic gene silencing. Variations in the SMCHD1 gene are associated...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (4): 1697–1706.
Published: 29 July 2020
... identified in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , the methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF) and its catalyzed histone H3 Lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) have already become well-established paradigm in plant epigenetic study. Like in animals, PcG proteins mediate plant development and repress homeotic gene...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (3): 1019–1034.
Published: 15 June 2020
...Rachel M. Woodhouse; Alyson Ashe Gene regulatory information can be inherited between generations in a phenomenon termed transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (TEI). While examples of TEI in many animals accumulate, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven particularly useful...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (2): 581–593.
Published: 22 April 2020
... 27 3 2020 30 3 2020 © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2020 centromere embryo epigenetics histone chaperone nucleolus ribosomes The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear organelle in almost all cells...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (3): 875–885.
Published: 17 June 2019
... of the Biochemical Society 2019 cell differentiation epigenetics epigenomics methylation model organisms pluripotency Ten-eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenases were first described when TET1 was identified as a fusion partner of the mixed lineage leukaemia gene ( MLL ) in acute...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 713–724.
Published: 05 April 2019
... on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2019 chromatin developmental biology enhancer epigenetics methylation zebrafish One of the best-studied problems in biology is the question of how a single-celled zygote gives rise to a multicellular patterned animal. Multiple model systems, including...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (2): 691–700.
Published: 22 March 2019
... been shown to exist in multiple, reproducible configurations, or states. These chromatin states are achieved through variation in the combinations of the epigenetic histone modification marks present upon nucleosomes, and through these the chromatin-modifying protein complexes that read and write...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (4): 957–966.
Published: 31 July 2018
... ) or Wen-Hui Shen ( wen-hui.shen@ibmp-cnrs.unistra.fr ) 21 4 2018 24 5 2018 25 5 2018 © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2018 Arabidopsis thaliana chromatin remodeling epigenetics gene transcription histone H2A...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (3): 577–586.
Published: 20 April 2018
...Andrew Keniry; Marnie E. Blewitt Single-cell genomics is set to revolutionise our understanding of how epigenetic silencing works; by studying specific epigenetic marks or chromatin conformations in single cells, it is possible to ask whether they cause transcriptional silencing or are instead...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 323–338.
Published: 13 April 2017
...Maïté Leturcq; Tony Lefebvre; Anne-Sophie Vercoutter-Edouart Post-translational modifications of histones and the dynamic DNA methylation cycle are finely regulated by a myriad of chromatin-binding factors and chromatin-modifying enzymes. Epigenetic modifications ensure local changes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 1037–1042.
Published: 11 August 2014
... these acetylation modifications under these various settings awaits further detailed investigation. acetyl-CoA acetylation epigenetics metabolism Fundamental aspects of the regulation of cell growth and proliferation remain incompletely understood. In investigations of the mechanisms of cell...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 945–951.
Published: 11 August 2014
...Margreet C.M. Vissers; Caroline Kuiper; Gabi U. Dachs There is growing interest in the family of 2-OG (2-oxoglutarate)-dependent dioxygenase enzymes that catalyse the hydroxylation of a wide range of organic targets. Members of this family that regulate the cell's hypoxic response and epigenetic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 582–586.
Published: 20 March 2014
... the suffering of the next generation. 15 10 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society 2014 cortisol depression epigenetics hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis intergenerational transmission maternal care pregnancy Although postnatal depression is well...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 569–581.
Published: 20 March 2014
... and boosting mechanisms underlying learning, drug development in this field aims at designing CBT-augmenting compounds that help to overcome extinction learning deficits, promote long-term fear inhibition and thus support relapse prevention. Progress in revealing the role of epigenetic regulation of specific...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 797–801.
Published: 23 May 2013
... in the mechanisms which define and maintain β-cell identity. The advent of genome-wide analyses of chromatin modifications has highlighted the role of epigenetic factors in determining cell identity. There is also evidence from both human populations and animal models for an epigenetic component in susceptibility...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 751–759.
Published: 23 May 2013
...Diego Molina-Serrano; Vassia Schiza; Antonis Kirmizis Epigenetic modifications, including those occurring on DNA and on histone proteins, control gene expression by establishing and maintaining different chromatin states. In recent years, it has become apparent that epigenetic modifications do...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 711–719.
Published: 23 May 2013
... of pluripotent cells in vitro . Recent studies have, however, found that the choice of culture condition has a significant impact on epigenetic profiles of cultured pluripotent cells. Mouse and human ESCs (embryonic stem cells) show substantial epigenetic differences that are dependent on the culture condition...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 783–788.
Published: 23 May 2013
...-transformed, auto-aggressive phenotype typified by loss of contact inhibition, reduced apoptosis and the production of matrix-degrading enzymes. The mechanisms involved in the development of this phenotype are unclear; however, increasing evidence implicates alterations in the epigenetic regulation of gene...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 727–740.
Published: 23 May 2013
... simultaneous access to the major and minor groove [ 21 ]. Therefore ZF-CxxC domain-mediated recognition of CGI DNA in vivo requires both the presence of non-methylated CpG dinucleotides and accessible internucleosomal DNA. chromatin CpG island DNA demethylation DNA methylation epigenetics...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 803–807.
Published: 23 May 2013
...Sanne D. van Otterdijk; John C. Mathers; Gordon Strathdee DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism in mammalian cells. It occurs almost exclusively at CpG sites and has a key role in a number of biological processes. It plays an important part in regulating chromatin structure and has...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 789–796.
Published: 23 May 2013
... expression programme is largely driven through epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational histone modifications and DNA methylation. In the last few years, the distinct functions of histone modifications and of the enzymes catalysing their formation have begun to be elucidated in processes important...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 697–699.
Published: 23 May 2013
...Adele Murrell; Paul J. Hurd; Ian C. Wood Our advances in technology allow us to sequence DNA to uncover genetic differences not only between individuals, but also between normal and diseased cells within an individual. However, there is still a lot we have yet to understand regarding the epigenetic...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (4): 637–639.
Published: 22 July 2008
... this epigenetic silencing is overturned. A key event is the activation of the viral protein Zta with three ZREs (Zta-response elements) from the BRLF1 promoter (referred to as Rp). Two of these ZREs contain CpG motifs and are methylated in the latent genome. Biochemical analyses and molecular modelling of Zta...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (3): 618–622.
Published: 22 May 2007
... libraries. These retrotransposons can act as alternative promoters and first exons for diverse genes, synchronizing their expression. Heritable genetic change due to replication of these retrotransposons probably occurs specifically in oocytes and early embryos. ERVs are usually epigenetically silenced...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (6): 1148–1150.
Published: 25 October 2006
... the complexity of the protein coding genome, which is currently unable to explain inter-species diversification. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email Jamie.Timmons@ki.se ). 11 7 2006 © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 biodiversity epigenetics imprinting natural...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (4): 709–711.
Published: 01 August 2005
... [ 4 ]. These epigenetic effects prompted the authors to suggest that chronic supplementation of humans with folates may modify gene expression in unexpected and not necessarily beneficial ways. It has previously been reported that low folate status is associated with global hypomethylation of DNA...