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Keywords: diabetes
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (6): 2539–2548.
Published: 09 December 2021
...Mohamed Saleh; George K. Gittes; Krishna Prasadan Diabetes mellitus is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. According to the CDC, in 2017, ∼34.2 million of the American population had diabetes. Also, in 2017, diabetes was the seventh leading cause...
Includes: Supplementary data
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (1): 507–517.
Published: 22 February 2021
..., while also acting as a gatekeeper, controlling the movement of nutrients, metabolites, hormones and other bioactive molecules between the circulation and underlying tissues [ 1 , 2 ]. Conditions of metabolic stress, including obesity, dyslipidaemia and type 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (1): 313–325.
Published: 01 February 2021
...Alisa Morss Clyne The endothelial cell response to glucose plays an important role in both health and disease. Endothelial glucose-induced dysfunction was first studied in diabetic animal models and in cells cultured in hyperglycemia. Four classical dysfunction pathways were identified, which were...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 545–553.
Published: 13 April 2017
... pathophysiological processes. Early studies implicated increased protein O-GlcNAcylation as contributing to the cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes, whereas subsequent studies demonstrated that acute increases in O -GlcNAc levels were protective against ischemia/reperfusion injury. There is now...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2015) 43 (5): 901–907.
Published: 09 October 2015
... of the channel [(sulphonylurea receptor (SUR)], counteracting these nts’ simultaneous inhibitory effect at the channel pore [ 7 ]. Sulphonylurea drugs have been used for over 60 years to treat type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. These drugs share a common mechanism of action, which is also the case for the previously...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 1118–1122.
Published: 11 August 2014
...Suzanne Jackowski; Roberta Leonardi CoA (coenzyme A) is an essential cofactor that is emerging as a global regulator of energy metabolism. Tissue CoA levels are tightly regulated and vary in response to different conditions including nutritional state and diabetes. Recent studies reveal the ability...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 928–933.
Published: 11 August 2014
...Andrew Shaw; Mary K. Doherty; Nicola J. Mutch; Sandra M. MacRury; Ian L. Megson Atherothrombotic disease is a well-recognized complication of diabetes and is a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. Although there is substantial evidence linking diabetes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 439–442.
Published: 20 March 2014
...Thomas Fleming; Peter P. Nawroth Patients suffering from DN (diabetic neuropathy) suffer from the coexistence of positive (i.e. pain, hypersensitivity, tingling, cramps, cold feet, etc.) and negative (i.e. loss of sensory perception, delayed wound healing, etc.) symptoms. Elevated blood glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 231–238.
Published: 20 March 2014
... the problem of exercise defects in diabetes with basic research efforts in cell and rodent models and clinical research efforts in subjects with diabetes mellitus. CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein) regulates cellular differentiation of neurons, β-cells, adipocytes and smooth muscle cells...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 523–527.
Published: 20 March 2014
...Branka Vulesevic; Ross W. Milne; Erik J. Suuronen Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes affects cardiac tissue through several different, yet interconnected, pathways. Damage to endothelial cells from direct exposure to high blood glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 419–424.
Published: 20 March 2014
..., HAGH (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase), has a regulatory p53-response element. Glo1 is linked to healthy aging, obesity, diabetes and diabetic complications, chronic renal disease, cardiovascular disease, other disorders and multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Mathematical modelling...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 528–533.
Published: 20 March 2014
... in diabetic patients, such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Regarding macrovascular complications, especially atherosclerotic lesions, the impact of Glo1 is even less clear. In the present article, we review the latest findings regarding the role of Glo1 and MG in vascular biology and the pathophysiology...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (1): 127–133.
Published: 29 January 2013
...Tanecia Mitchell; Balu Chacko; Scott W. Ballinger; Shannon M. Bailey; Jianhua Zhang; Victor Darley-Usmar Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with a broad range of pathologies including diabetes, ethanol toxicity, metabolic syndrome and cardiac failure. It is now becoming clear that maintaining...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (6): 1601–1605.
Published: 21 November 2011
.... This evidence and the emerging mechanisms by which PPARs act in endothelial cells are discussed in more detail. 1 email d.bishop-bailey@qmul.ac.uk 27 6 2011 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 angiogenesis cancer diabetes dyslipidaemia exercise...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (5): 1179–1188.
Published: 24 September 2010
... -acetylglucosamine) modification is one such glycosylation with considerable medical interest, reflecting its implication in diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and neurodegeneration. In the present paper, we review recent structural and mechanistic studies into the enzymes responsible for this modification...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 946–949.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Luigi Gnudi The epidemic of Type 2 diabetes, and the parallel rising incidence of end-stage renal disease, is progressively increasing worldwide. Kidney disease is one of the major chronic microvascular complications of diabetes, and both metabolic and haemodynamic perturbations participate in its...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 930–934.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Ning Li; Francesca Frigerio; Pierre Maechler Pancreatic β-cells are essential for the maintenance of glucose homoeostasis, and dysfunction of these insulin-secreting cells results in the development of diabetes. In the course of events leading from obesity to Type 2 diabetes, several mechanisms...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 901–904.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Vincent Poitout The glucolipotoxicity hypothesis postulates that chronically elevated levels of glucose and fatty acids adversely affect pancreatic β-cell function and thereby contribute to the deterioration of insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes. Whereas ample experimental evidence in in vitro...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 920–929.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Cécile Guichard; Richard Moreau; Dominique Pessayre; Terry Kay Epperson; Karl-Heinz Krause The incidence of obesity and non-esterified (‘free’) fatty acid-associated metabolic disorders such as the metabolic syndrome and diabetes is increasing dramatically in most countries. Although...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 963–965.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Anath Shalev Glucotoxicity plays a major role in pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and diabetes progression, but the factors involved have remained largely unknown. Our recent studies have identified TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein) as a novel pro-apoptotic β-cell factor that is induced by glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 909–915.
Published: 19 September 2008
... to human neurodegenerative, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. The ER stress response has also been implicated in diabetes development, affecting both insulin production by pancreatic β-cells and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. In the present mini-review, we focus on recent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 286–289.
Published: 21 May 2008
...-cell regeneration diabetes glucose metabolism pancreas transgenic model Pancreatic β-cells constitute approx. 80% of the endocrine pancreas, within the so-called islets of Langerhans. The β-cell mass assumes the production and release of insulin in order to regulate blood glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 316–320.
Published: 21 May 2008
... in animal models to be important both in the early stages of diabetes development and in the final effector stages. Recently, there has also been much interest in studying CD8 + T-cells that may play a role in human Type 1 diabetes and identifying their antigenic targets. The present paper will focus...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 267–271.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Guy A. Rutter; F. Susan Wong Defective insulin secretion is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes. Whereas Type 1 diabetes has long been known to result from the immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, Type 2 diabetes appears to involve both loss of β-cell mass and glucose sensitivity in the face...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 328–333.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Conny Gysemans; Hanne Callewaert; Lutgart Overbergh; Chantal Mathieu IFNγ (interferon γ), a cytokine typically secreted by infiltrating immune cells in insulitis in Type 1 diabetes, is by itself not detrimental to β-cells, but, together with other cytokines, such as IL-1β (interleukin 1β) and TNFα...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 357–359.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Merewyn K. Loder; Gabriela da Silva Xavier; Angela McDonald; Guy A. Rutter Genetic studies have linked the risk of Type 2 diabetes with SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the gene encoding the Wnt signalling-associated transcription factor, TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2). The risk alleles...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 360–362.
Published: 21 May 2008
.... 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email m.walker@weizmann.ac.il ). 27 1 2008 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 diabetes enhancer fatty acid FFAR1 GPR40 transcription In recent years, it has become clear that the view...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 300–305.
Published: 21 May 2008
... The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Biochemical Society 2008 diabetes disallowed gene forbidden gene glucose sensing hypoglycaemia inappropriate insulin release As often stated in the world of islet biologists, the β-cell is a specialized cell type, unique in its physiological...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 343–347.
Published: 21 May 2008
..., DNA damage and interference of reactive species with signal transduction pathways, which contribute significantly to β-cell dysfunction and death in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Reactive oxygen species, superoxide radicals (O 2 •− ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and, in a final iron-catalysed...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1205–1207.
Published: 25 October 2007
... in the β-cell's development, differentiation and function. However, chronic activation of PERK can induce cell death, and its activation has been implicated in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This short review aims to provide an insight into our current understanding of the role of PERK in the life...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1175–1179.
Published: 25 October 2007
...E.P. Wijekoon; M.E. Brosnan; J.T. Brosnan An increase in the plasma level of Hcy (homocysteine), an intermediate in the catabolism of methionine, has been identified as a risk factor for many diseases including CVD (cardiovascular disease). CVD is the major cause of death in patients with diabetes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1180–1186.
Published: 25 October 2007
... by transamination to aspartate with the amino group being donated by glutamate. The 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) generated leaves the mitochondrion for the cytoplasm. amino acid metabolism diabetes gene expression glucose insulin secretion mitochondrion In β-cells, NADH may be transported...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1295–1297.
Published: 25 October 2007
...B.K. Pedersen Low-grade chronic inflammation is a feature of Type 2 diabetes and appears to play a pathogenetic role in insulin resistance. It is well known that cytokines, besides their immunoregulatory roles, are important players in metabolism. Moreover, it has become evident that skeletal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (3): 484–486.
Published: 22 May 2007
... © 2007 Biochemical Society 2007 apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48) cardiovascular disease chylomicron diabetes dyslipidaemia obesity Diet and Cardiovascular Health: Chylomicron Remnants and Their Emerging Roles in Vascular Dysfunction in Atherogenesis: Biochemical Society Focused...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 219–221.
Published: 20 March 2007
... is a characteristic feature of diabetes and many forms of human cancer. Recent molecular genetic studies initiated in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster , have highlighted two new cell-type-specific mechanisms regulating PI3K/Akt signalling and its downstream effects. First, the cellular response to this cassette...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 257–259.
Published: 20 March 2007
... enzyme in insulin signalling regulating glucose uptake and cell growth. Therefore PTEN has recently moved into the spotlight as a drug target in diabetes. This review summarizes studies undertaken on PTEN's role in glucose uptake, insulin resistance, diabetes and its controversial role in GLUT (glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 770–773.
Published: 25 October 2006
..., such as diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email david.k.covington@gsk.com ). 21 6 2006 © 2006 The Biochemical Society 2006 Information Processing and Molecular Signalling: A Focus Topic at BioScience2006, held at SECC Glasgow, U.K...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 824–827.
Published: 25 October 2006
... of insulin exocytosis. Mitochondrial defects, such as mutations and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production, might be associated with β-cell failure in the course of diabetes. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) mutation A3243G is associated with MIDD (mitochondrial inherited diabetes and deafness). A common...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 798–801.
Published: 25 October 2006
...X. Fang; G. Sweeney Nutritional control of molecular events has become of great interest given the increased incidence of diet-induced obesity, and consequently Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, in recent years. The altered adipose tissue content in obese individuals results in an altered...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 774–778.
Published: 25 October 2006
...P.R. Flatt; B.D. Green Increasing prevalence of obesity combined with longevity will produce an epidemic of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes in the next 20 years. This disease is associated with defects in insulin secretion, specifically abnormalities of insulin secretory kinetics...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (2): 243–246.
Published: 20 March 2006
... and studies of the regulation of K ATP channel activity by nucleotides. It then considers the molecular mechanism by which gain-of-function mutations in the Kir6.2 subunit of the K ATP channel reduce channel inhibition by ATP and thereby lead to neonatal diabetes, and how identification of these mutations has...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (1): 17–21.
Published: 20 January 2006
... of the IRES in the activation of FGF-2 expression in testis maturation and brain function. We have explored translational control of FGF-2 mRNA under diabetic hyperglycaemic conditions, as FGF-2 is implied in diabetes-related vascular complications. FGF-2 IRES is specifically activated in the aorta wall...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 371–374.
Published: 01 April 2005
... in man can be inactivating, to cause a form of diabetes mellitus, or activating, to lower blood glucose levels. Recently, models of GK protein structure have helped to elucidate the role of inactivating and activating mutations, with the latter revealing an allosteric binding site, possibly...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 350–353.
Published: 01 April 2005
... in humans, monkeys and rodents. In humans, defects in aPKC in muscle are seen in Type II diabetes and its precursors, obesity, the obesity-associated polycystic ovary syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance. These defects in muscle aPKC activation are due to both impaired activation of insulin receptor...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (2): 367–370.
Published: 01 April 2005
... substrates. A number of PDHK inhibitors are now available to enable this mechanism to be evaluated as a therapy for diabetes. The isoenzyme selectivity profile of AZD7545 and related compounds will be described and evidence for their non-ATP-competitive mode of action presented. These compounds increase PDH...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (5): 803–808.
Published: 26 October 2004
... overlapping roles and have been implicated in a variety of human pathologies, including Type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, bipolar disorder and cancer. Recently, the modes of regulation of this enzyme have been elucidated through a combination of structural and cell biological studies. A series...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (1): 59–64.
Published: 01 February 2004
... at Keble College, Oxford, 7–11 September 2003 7 September 2003 © 2004 Biochemical Society 2004 diabetes fatty acid insulin lipolysis Abbreviations used: TAG, triacylglycerol; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein; NEFA, non-esterified fatty acid; apoB, apolipoprotein B; DGAT...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1367–1371.
Published: 01 December 2003
... is increased in diabetes mellitus, and it can react with amino groups of proteins to generate advanced glycation end products. Indeed, cell surface receptors probably recognize physiological levels of methylglyoxal-derived glycation products more than glucose-derived products [3 5]. Many metabolites...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1165–1167.
Published: 01 December 2003
... the postprandial elevation in blood glucose. These results suggest that PDHK inhibitors may be beneficial agents for improving glucose control in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Abbreviations used: PDH, pyruvate dehydrogenase; PDHK, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase; PDP, pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase; DCA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1168–1170.
Published: 01 December 2003
.... A family of four dedicated PDH kinase isoenzymes exists, each of which displays a distinct tissue-specific expression profile. AZD7545 is one of a series of PDH kinase inhibitors developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The isoenzyme-selectivity profile of AZD7545 and related compounds is described...