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Keywords: cell cycle
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (4): 1105–1118.
Published: 30 August 2022
...Anastasia Audrey; Lauren de Haan; Marcel A.T.M. van Vugt; H. Rudolf de Boer Failure of cells to process toxic double-strand breaks (DSBs) constitutes a major intrinsic source of genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. In contrast with interphase of the cell cycle, canonical repair pathways...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (3): 1081–1090.
Published: 08 June 2022
...Michael A. Q. Martinez; David Q. Matus Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) sensors have facilitated investigations of the cell cycle in living cells. These genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors change their subcellular location upon activation of CDKs. Activation is primarily regulated...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2022) 50 (2): 813–824.
Published: 28 March 2022
...Elias S. Weiler; Tamas G. Szabo; Irmina Garcia-Carpio; Andreas Villunger The death fold domain-containing protein PIDD1 has recently attracted renewed attention as a regulator of the orphan cell death-related protease, Caspase-2. Caspase-2 can activate p53 to promote cell cycle arrest in response...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (5): 2133–2141.
Published: 21 September 2021
...Liu Mei; Jeanette Gowen Cook The cell division cycle must be strictly regulated during both development and adult maintenance, and efficient and well-controlled DNA replication is a key event in the cell cycle. DNA replication origins are prepared in G1 phase of the cell cycle in a process known...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2021) 49 (2): 829–841.
Published: 12 April 2021
...Ciaran G. Morrison The maintenance of genome stability involves integrated biochemical activities that detect DNA damage or incomplete replication, delay the cell cycle, and direct DNA repair activities on the affected chromatin. These processes, collectively termed the DNA damage response (DDR...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2020) 48 (1): 245–256.
Published: 03 February 2020
... on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2020 cell cycle Golgi apparatus mitosis The Golgi complex (GC) has a central role in the transport, processing, and targeting of lipids and proteins to their final destinations [ 1 ]. The basic transport function does not require a specific structural...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1083–1091.
Published: 21 September 2018
...Laura J.A. Hardwick; Roberta Azzarelli; Anna Philpott Embryogenesis requires an exquisite regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation into a massively diverse range of cells at the correct time and place. Stem cells also remain to varying extents in different adult...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (4): 797–806.
Published: 22 June 2018
... 4.0 (CC BY) . cell cycle female gametes meiosis In mitosis, the kinetochores of sister chromatids bi-orientate towards opposite poles of the spindle but during MI the sister kinetochores align side-by-side, and in so doing ‘mono-orient’ towards the same pole. For mammalian oocytes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (5): 1125–1136.
Published: 12 September 2017
.... As potentially druggable enzymes, disease-associated DUBs are of increasing interest as pharmaceutical targets. The biology, structure and regulation of DUBs have been extensively reviewed elsewhere, so here we focus specifically on roles of DUBs in regulating cell cycle processes in mammalian cells. Over...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2017) 45 (2): 313–322.
Published: 13 April 2017
...Ee Phie Tan; Francesca E. Duncan; Chad Slawson Cell division (mitosis) and gamete production (meiosis) are fundamental requirements for normal organismal development. The mammalian cell cycle is tightly regulated by different checkpoints ensuring complete and precise chromosomal segregation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (5): 1281–1288.
Published: 19 October 2016
... 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society 2016 cell cycle EMAP EML MAP microtubule oncogenic fusion Mammals express six EML proteins that have been reported under different names, but we refer to here as EML1 to EML6 ( Figure 1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (6): 1534–1537.
Published: 17 November 2014
...Nicola Brownlow; Tanya Pike; Victoria Crossland; Jeroen Claus; Peter Parker Cytokinesis is the final act of the cell cycle where the replicated DNA and cellular contents are finally split into two daughter cells. This process is very tightly controlled as DNA segregation errors and cytokinesis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (5): 1471–1476.
Published: 18 September 2014
...Alessandro Poli; Sara Mongiorgi; Lucio Cocco; Matilde Y. Follo Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases which act as key regulators in cell cycle progression and differentiation. Studies of the involvement of PKCs in cell proliferation showed that their role is dependent...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (4): 1219–1223.
Published: 11 August 2014
... transplantation, or drug toxicity, has a high morbidity and mortality rate and presents a significant burden to health services worldwide. AKI primarily affects the renal cortex, in particular PTCs (proximal tubular epithelial cells). Current research demonstrates causality between G 2 /M cell cycle arrest...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 76–81.
Published: 23 January 2014
... that an important component of NF-κB's function includes regulation of the cell cycle. However, this aspect of its behaviour is often overlooked and receives less attention than its ability to induce inflammatory gene expression. In the present article, we provide an updated review of the current state of our...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1687–1691.
Published: 20 November 2013
... is stimulated by purine limitation: implications for activation of the protein kinase GCN2 Mol. Cell. Biol. 1993 13 5099 5111 7 Hamanaka R.B. Bennett B.S. Cullinan S.B. Diehl J.A. PERK and GCN2 contribute to eIF2α phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest after activation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (6): 1720–1725.
Published: 20 November 2013
...-rennes1.fr ). cell cycle development DNA replication origin of replication replication stress S-phase Genome duplication is an essential biological process that is tightly regulated and intricately co-ordinated with other cellular functions, including transcription, proliferation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (4): 1008–1016.
Published: 18 July 2013
... and regulation. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email jane.endicott@ncl.ac.uk ). 3 6 2013 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 cell cycle cyclin cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation transcription X-ray crystallography...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 777–782.
Published: 23 May 2013
... in the DNA-damage response and in cell cycle progression through S-phase and into G 2 . Furthermore, as part of NuRD, it participates in regulating acetylation levels of p53, thereby indirectly regulating the G 1 /S cell cycle checkpoint. Although CHD4 has a somewhat complicated relationship with the cell...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 778–783.
Published: 20 July 2012
... rapid destruction of mRNAs carrying a PTC (premature translation termination codon). However, some studies have indicated that in human cells UPF1 has additional roles, possibly unrelated to NMD, which are carried out in the nucleus. These might involve telomere maintenance, cell cycle progression...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 880–885.
Published: 20 July 2012
...Alexander M.J. Rattray; Berndt Müller Histone proteins are essential for the packaging of DNA into chromosomes. Histone gene expression is cell-cycle-regulated and coupled to DNA replication. Control of histone gene expression occurs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level and ensures...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (6): 1742–1746.
Published: 21 November 2011
... and for the cytoskeleton on its cytoplasmic surface. Both sets of anchors are proteins called NETs (nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins), embedded respectively in the inner or outer nuclear membranes. Several lines of evidence indicate that the nuclear envelope contributes to cell-cycle regulation. These contributions...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 600–605.
Published: 22 March 2011
... employment differs between these two phases of the cell cycle. The Ddc1 (human Rad9) subunit of the clamp directly activates Mec1 in G 1 -phase, an activity identified only in S. cerevisiae so far. However, in G 2 -phase, the 9-1-1 clamp activates the checkpoint by two mechanisms. One mechanism includes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 674–678.
Published: 22 March 2011
... cell cycle embryonic stem cell glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pluripotency proliferation self-renewal Our work, alongside that of others, has also implicated PI3K-dependent signalling in the control of mESC self-renewal. We were the first to suggest...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (5): 1242–1246.
Published: 24 September 2010
...Béla Novák; P.K. Vinod; Paula Freire; Orsolya Kapuy Alternation of chromosome replication and segregation is essential for successful completion of the cell cycle and it requires an oscillation of Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1)–CycB (cyclin B) activity. In the present review, we illustrate...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (2): 577–582.
Published: 22 March 2010
... determination, cell-cycle progression and gene regulation. The present mini-review encompasses key advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling male gametophyte patterning in angiosperms. A brief overview of male gametophyte development is presented, followed by a discussion...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 78–82.
Published: 19 January 2010
... 2010 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cell cycle degron mitotic switch ubiquitination ubiquitin ligase Interestingly, several APC/C Cdc20 substrates are degraded also in the presence of an active SAC. These include cyclin A [ 41 ] and Nek2A [ 42 ]. How this degradation takes...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 1–5.
Published: 19 January 2010
... to develop artificially fused UBDs [known as TUBEs (tandem disposition of ubiquitin-binding entities)] to generate a powerful tool to purify native polyubiquitylated proteins, reaching affinities for polyubiquitin in the nanomolar range. anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) cell cycle DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (5): 931–935.
Published: 21 September 2009
... as a function of the cell cycle. The activating role of miRNAs is now being confirmed in the immature Xenopus oocyte, which mimics the quiescent state. Figure 2 An in vivo cross-linking-coupled tagged mRNA purification scheme Cells transfected with the S1 aptamer-tagged TNFα ARE reporter, 3′-UTR...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 926–930.
Published: 22 July 2009
... damage-dependent checkpoints throughout the cell cycle, which arrest cells in certain cell cycle phases to facilitate repair of damaged DNA or apoptosis of the cell [ 1 , 2 , 8 , 31 ]. These checkpoint pathways are essential to diminish genome instability of eukaryotic cells and tumour development...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (3): 483–494.
Published: 20 May 2009
... laboratory's recent work, which has revealed that the way cells respond to DSBs is modulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner to ensure that the cell uses the DSB repair system that is most suited to its cell-cycle stage. Finally, I explain how our increasing knowledge of the DDR is suggesting new avenues...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 864–867.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Marc Piechaczyk; Rosa Farràs JunB is a member of the AP-1 (activator protein-1) family of dimeric transcription factors. It exerts a dual action on the cell cycle. It is best known as a cell proliferation inhibitor, a senescence inducer and a tumour suppressor. As for the molecular mechanisms...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 411–415.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Andrea Krapp; Viesturs Simanis The fission yeast septation initiation network, or SIN, is a signal transduction network that is required for septum formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe . Its activity is tightly regulated through the cell cycle, to ensure proper co-ordination of mitosis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 505–507.
Published: 21 May 2008
... in a number of cellular processes including signal transduction, transcription, RNA metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. In the present review, we summarize the functions of Sam68 as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression, with particular relevance to cancer...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1342–1346.
Published: 25 October 2007
...M.M. Murray; P.B. Mullan; D.P. Harkin BRCA1 (breast-cancer susceptibility gene 1) is a tumour suppressor, implicated in the hereditary predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes including DNA repair and recombination, cell cycle...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 391–395.
Published: 20 March 2007
... of the cell cycle. We investigated the effect of quinidine and caesium (Cs + ) on cell proliferation, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) release, free internal calcium, membrane potential, polyamine concentration, ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) activity and polyamine uptake in C6 glioma cells. The EC 50 for reducing...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 222–224.
Published: 20 March 2007
... 1645 1669 15 Belenguer P. Pelloquin L. Baldin V. Oustrin M.L. Ducommun B. Prog. Cell Cycle Res. 1995 1 207 214 16 Hirota T. Morisaki T. Nishiyama Y. Marumoto T. Tada K. Hara T. Masuko N. Inagaki M. Hatakeyama K. Saya H...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (2): 405–409.
Published: 20 March 2007
... in DENSPM-treated cells in relation to effects on cell cycle kinetics and induction of apoptosis. To really understand the role of polyamines in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, we believe it is now time to go through the vast polyamine literature in a meta-analysis-based manner. This short review does...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (4): 649–651.
Published: 01 August 2005
..., leading to an increase in RhoE levels. In addition, phosphorylation reduces its association with membranes and correlates with its ability to induce loss of stress fibres. RhoE also acts independently of ROCK to inhibit cell cycle progression, in part by preventing translation of cyclin D 1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (4): 724–727.
Published: 01 August 2005
... 2005 apoptosis carbonic anhydrase cell cycle coxib cytochrome c NAG-1 (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene) Cancer prevention, at present a better option than cancer treatment, is entering an era when it appears to be a realistic possibility. The seminal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (3): 471–473.
Published: 01 June 2005
... is required for efficient DNA replication probably because a decreased ability to assemble chromatin results in a decrease in the rate of DNA replication. cell cycle histone mRNA RNA interference S-phase progression small interfering RNA stem–loop binding protein Correct progression through S...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (1): 294–296.
Published: 01 February 2005
... physiological relevance, since it allows us to coordinate cell growth with cell cycle progression and it is responsible for cell size homeostasis. The cell sizer mechanism requires the overcoming of two sequential thresholds, involving Cln3 and Far1, and Clb5,6 and Sic1, respectively. When both thresholds...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (6): 967–972.
Published: 26 October 2004
.... The basic paradigm emerging is that a number of groups of genes are expressed in successive waves at different cell cycle times. Transcription of a particular group is controlled by a common DNA motif present in each gene's promoter, bound by a transcription factor complex. Each motif and transcription...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (5): 724–727.
Published: 26 October 2004
...L.A. Passmore The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (6): 982–984.
Published: 26 October 2004
... that the proliferation of B-cells was inhibited by retinoids, and that this was due to rapid inhibition of the cell cycle machinery regulating G 1 -to-S transition. In contrast, the proliferation of T-cells was enhanced by physiological levels of retinoic acid, and the effect was due to induction of IL-2 (interleukin 2...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (2): 360–361.
Published: 01 April 2004
...L. Martínez-Gac; B. Álvarez; Z. García; M. Marqués; M. Arrizabalaga; A.C. Carrera Cell cycle progression is a tightly controlled process. To initiate cell division, mitogens trigger a number of early signals that promote the G 0 –G 1 transition by inducing cell growth and the activation of G 1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (2): 236–239.
Published: 01 April 2004
... Cdc6 cell cycle DNA replication mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) origin recognition complex (ORC) Abbreviations used: ORC, origin recognition complex; MCM, mini-chromosome maintenance. 19 September 2003 © 2004 Biochemical Society 2004 236 Biochemical Society...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (6): 1526–1529.
Published: 01 December 2003
... model of the eukaryotic cell-division cycle. With this comprehensive model, we also discuss the mechanisms by which different checkpoint pathways stabilize different cell-cycle states and inhibit the transitions that drive cell-cycle progression. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (5): 907–911.
Published: 01 October 2003
... consist of two series of transients; the first lasts about 4 h, from metaphase II until interphase of the first cell cycle, and the second lasts the duration of the first mitotic division. This cell-cycle-regulated aspect to the pattern of Ca 2+ signalling at fertilization is reflected in the role...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (2): 366–370.
Published: 01 April 2003
...S.M. Oredsson The driving force of the cell cycle is the activities of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Key steps in the regulation of the cell cycle therefore must impinge upon the activities of the CDKs. CDKs exert their functions when bound to cyclins that are expressed cyclically during...