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Keywords: DNA damage
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Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (6): 1609–1619.
Published: 12 December 2019
...Qian Wu Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which is the most toxic DNA damage in cells. Unrepaired DSBs can cause genome instability, tumorigenesis or cell death. DNA end synapsis is the first and probably the most important step...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2019) 47 (1): 425–432.
Published: 07 February 2019
... in the sperm head. Generally, screening for overall DNA damage is relatively commonplace in clinics, but aneuploidy assessment is less so and nuclear organisation studies form the basis of academic research. Several studies have focussed on the role of chromosome segregation, nuclear organisation and analysis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2018) 46 (5): 1213–1224.
Published: 04 October 2018
...Jessica L. Barnes; Maria Zubair; Kaarthik John; Miriam C. Poirier; Francis L. Martin Humans are variously and continuously exposed to a wide range of different DNA-damaging agents, some of which are classed as carcinogens. DNA damage can arise from exposure to exogenous agents, but damage from...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (2): 425–432.
Published: 20 March 2014
... proteome DNA damage glycation glyoxalase methylglyoxal receptor-binding domain Damage to the proteome by glycation is a continual process in living systems. Glycation of amino groups pioneered by Maillard [ 1 ] led to studies of glycation of proteins by mainly glucose in physiological...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2014) 42 (1): 25–34.
Published: 23 January 2014
... is replicated in vivo is less clear. In fact, there have been many observations of discontinuous replication in the absence of exogenous DNA-damaging agents. It has also been proposed that replication is discontinuous on the leading strand at least in part because of DNA lesion bypass. Several recent studies...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 777–782.
Published: 23 May 2013
... in the DNA-damage response and in cell cycle progression through S-phase and into G 2 . Furthermore, as part of NuRD, it participates in regulating acetylation levels of p53, thereby indirectly regulating the G 1 /S cell cycle checkpoint. Although CHD4 has a somewhat complicated relationship with the cell...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (2): 463–473.
Published: 21 March 2013
... The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 Biochemical Society 2013 DNA damage E3 ligase really interesting new gene (RING) RING finger protein 4 (RNF4) small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) ubiquitin Modification of proteins by covalent addition of ubiquitin is a widely utilized signal...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (2): 370–376.
Published: 21 March 2012
...Kyle M. Miller; Stephen P. Jackson Inherited or acquired defects in detecting, signalling or repairing DNA damage are associated with various human pathologies, including immunodeficiencies, neurodegenerative diseases and various forms of cancer. Nuclear DNA is packaged into chromatin and therefore...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (6): 1795–1798.
Published: 21 November 2011
... Journal compilation © 2011 Biochemical Society 2011 cellular stress DNA damage heat shock nuclear envelope oxidative stress The NE (nuclear envelope) is a structure composed of the outer and inner nuclear membranes, an inter-membrane space bridged by protein complexes, and an underlying...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2011) 39 (2): 600–605.
Published: 22 March 2011
...Vasundhara M. Navadgi-Patil; Peter M. Burgers Mec1 [ATR (ataxia telangiectasia mutated- and Rad3-related) in humans] is the principle kinase responsible for checkpoint activation in response to replication stress and DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . The heterotrimeric checkpoint clamp, 9-1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (6): 1687–1690.
Published: 24 November 2010
... amplification chromium DNA damage mercury metal Centrosomes are the microtubule-organizing centres of the cell. They play an important role in cell division and the maintenance of genomic stability [ 1 ]. A normal mitotic cell contains two centrosomes orientated on opposite poles of the cell...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (2): 337–342.
Published: 22 March 2010
...), and unconjugated bile acids are involved in neoplastic development at more neutral pH (~6). Bile acids (at the appropriate pH) are potent DNA-damaging agents, due to the induction of ROS (reactive oxygen species), which are mainly induced by bile-induced damage to mitochondrial membranes, allowing leakage of ROS...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 92–97.
Published: 19 January 2010
...Joanna R. Morris Modification by SUMOs (small ubiquitin-related modifiers) is largely transient and considered to alter protein function through altered protein–protein interactions. These modifications are significant regulators of the response to DNA damage in eukaryotic model organisms...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 116–131.
Published: 19 January 2010
... modifications and interactions that regulate nucleotide excision repair, translesion synthesis, double-strand break repair and interstrand cross-link repair, with the discussion of relevant examples in each pathway. DNA damage DNA repair phosphorylation small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) ubiquitin...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 104–109.
Published: 19 January 2010
...Alfonso Gallego-Sánchez; Francisco Conde; Pedro San Segundo; Avelino Bueno Eukaryotes ubiquitylate the replication factor PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) so that it tolerates DNA damage. Although, in the last few years, the understanding of the evolutionarily conserved mechanism...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2010) 38 (1): 110–115.
Published: 19 January 2010
...Abel C.S. Chun; Dong-Yan Jin In response to DNA damage, TLS (translesion synthesis) allows replicative bypass of various DNA lesions, which stall normal replication. TLS is achieved by low-fidelity polymerases harbouring less stringent active sites. In humans, Y-family polymerases together...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (4): 926–930.
Published: 22 July 2009
...-dependent kinase 2)-independent DNA damage checkpoint signal transduction pathway following low doses of BPDE (benzo[ a ]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide) treatment, which causes DNA damage similar to UV-induced adducts. Cdc45 interacts physically and functionally with the putative eukaryotic replicative DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (3): 479–481.
Published: 20 May 2009
...Richard P. Bowater; Rhona H. Borts; Malcolm F. White In order to maintain genome integrity, it is essential that any DNA damage is repaired. This is achieved in diverse ways in all cells to ensure cellular survival. There is a large repertoire of proteins that remove and repair DNA damage. However...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (3): 483–494.
Published: 20 May 2009
...Stephen P. Jackson The DNA of all cells is continually under assault from a wide range of DNA-damaging agents. To counter this threat to their genetic integrity, cells possess systems, collectively known as the DDR (DNA-damage response), to detect DNA damage, signal its presence and mediate its...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2009) 37 (3): 495–510.
Published: 20 May 2009
...)-targeted E3 ubiquitin ligase. All three complexes play important, but distinct, roles in different aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and perturbed DNA replication. Slx4 interacts physically not only with Slx1, but also with Rad1–Rad10 [XPF (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F)–ERCC1...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 1071–1076.
Published: 19 September 2008
... on Oxidative DNA Damage has concluded that the true levels of the most widely studied lesion, 8-oxodG (8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine), in cellular DNA is between 0.5 and 5 lesions per 10 6 dG bases. Base excision repair of oxidative damage to DNA can be assessed by nicking assays based...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (6): 1519–1524.
Published: 23 November 2007
...A.L. Chambers; J.A. Downs The cellular response to DNA damage involves extensive interaction with and manipulation of chromatin. This includes the detection and repair of the DNA lesion, but there are also transcriptional responses to DNA damage, involving the up- or down-regulation of numerous...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2007) 35 (5): 1156–1160.
Published: 25 October 2007
... implications. 1 To whom correspondence should be addressed (email calarcon@us.es ). 24 5 2007 © The Authors Journal compilation © 2007 Biochemical Society 2007 antioxidant copper DNA damage pro-oxidant reactive oxygen species resveratrol Resveratrol (3,4′,5...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (4): 554–556.
Published: 21 July 2006
... in offspring. Co-ordination between chromosomal exchange and meiotic cell-cycle progression is achieved via a surveillance mechanism commonly referred to as the recombination checkpoint. Both components of the mitotic DNA damage checkpoint as well as meiosis-specific functions contribute to this highly...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (4): 689–693.
Published: 01 August 2005
... errors and by mediating an apoptotic response to DNA damage. Analysis of mouse lines with MMR missense mutations demonstrates that these MMR functions can be separated and allows the assessment of their individual roles in tumour suppression. These studies in mice indicate that, although the increased...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2005) 33 (4): 715–717.
Published: 01 August 2005
...T. Hay; A.R. Clarke Since the discovery of the tumour suppressor BRCA2 (encoded by breast-cancer susceptibility gene 2), cells lacking the fully functional protein have consistently been found to show increased sensitivity to a variety of DNA-damaging agents, particularly those that cross-link DNA...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2004) 32 (6): 936–939.
Published: 26 October 2004
... in tumours could lead to improved cancer diagnosis, choice of therapy and, ultimately, development of new drugs. 1 email n.d.perkins@dundee.ac.uk 12 6 2004 © 2004 The Biochemical Society 2004 ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) chemotherapy DNA damage p53 RelA UV light ARF...
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Biochem Soc Trans (2003) 31 (1): 257–262.
Published: 01 February 2003
... the role played by BRCA1 in mediating the cellular response to stress. We review the role played by BRCA1 in detecting and signalling the presence of DNA damage, particularly double-strand DNA breaks, and look at the evidence to support a role for BRCA1 in regulating stress response pathways such as the c...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (6): 666–673.
Published: 01 November 2001
... checkpoint pathways. The p53 tumour suppressor can simulate growth arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Thus, p53 alone is not sufficient to specify these two mutually exclusive fates in damaged cells. The retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (RB) is a necessary downstream effector in p53...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (6): 688–691.
Published: 01 November 2001
...K. J. Campbell; N. R. Chapman; N. D. Perkins The cellular response to DNA-damaging agents is partly mediated by DNA-binding transcription factors such as p53 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Typically NF-κB activation is associated with resistance to apoptosis. Following stimulation with UV light...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2001) 29 (2): 187–191.
Published: 01 May 2001
...C. W. Lawrence; V. M. Maher Translesion replication is a mechanism that employs specialized DNA polymerases for promoting continued nascent strand extension at forks blocked by the presence of unrepaired DNA damage. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae at least, this process contributes only modestly...