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Keywords: β-cell
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Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2016) 44 (1): 293–298.
Published: 09 February 2016
... and environmental triggers. Genome-wide association studies revealed that by and large, gene variants associated with type 2 diabetes are implicated in pancreatic β-cell function, suggesting that the β-cell may be the weakest link in the chain of events that results in diabetes. Thus, it is critical to understand...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2013) 41 (3): 797–801.
Published: 23 May 2013
...Timothy J. Pullen; Guy A. Rutter The progression of Type 2 diabetes is accompanied by diminishing islet β-cell mass and function. It has been proposed that β-cells are lost not only through apoptosis, but also by dedifferentiating into progenitor-like cells. There is therefore much interest...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2012) 40 (4): 800–803.
Published: 20 July 2012
...Jonathan M. Locke; Lorna W. Harries Recent studies in mouse, involving the β-cell-specific deletion of Dicer1, have highlighted the crucial role of miRNAs (microRNAs) in regulating insulin secretion and consequently Type 2 diabetes. Identifying the individual miRNAs involved in human islet...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 901–904.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Vincent Poitout The glucolipotoxicity hypothesis postulates that chronically elevated levels of glucose and fatty acids adversely affect pancreatic β-cell function and thereby contribute to the deterioration of insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes. Whereas ample experimental evidence in in vitro...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (5): 950–954.
Published: 19 September 2008
...Ruth Brownlie; Rachel M. Mayers; Jackie A. Pierce; Anna E. Marley; David M. Smith GPR40 (G-protein-coupled receptor 40) has been shown to be a physiologically relevant receptor for long-chain fatty acids. It is a family A G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the β-cell where it increases...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 353–356.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Susan Bonner-Weir; Akari Inada; Shigeru Yatoh; Wan-Chun Li; Tandy Aye; Elena Toschi; Arun Sharma The regenerative process in the pancreas is of particular interest, since diabetes, whether Type 1 or Type 2, results from an inadequate amount of insulin-producing β-cells. Islet neogenesis...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 316–320.
Published: 21 May 2008
...F. Susan Wong; L. Khai Siew; Li Wen The autoimmune attack on pancreatic β-cells is orchestrated by a variety of cells that produce cytokines and other toxic mediators. CD8 + T-cells work together with other lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells to mediate this damage and have been shown...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 290–293.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Shanta J. Persaud; Dany Muller; Peter M. Jones Studies in transgenic animals, rodent insulin-secreting cell lines and rodent islets suggest that insulin acts in an autocrine manner to regulate β-cell mass and gene expression. Very little is known about the in vitro roles played by insulin in human...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 267–271.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Guy A. Rutter; F. Susan Wong Defective insulin secretion is a hallmark of all forms of diabetes. Whereas Type 1 diabetes has long been known to result from the immune-mediated destruction of β-cells, Type 2 diabetes appears to involve both loss of β-cell mass and glucose sensitivity in the face...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 328–333.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Conny Gysemans; Hanne Callewaert; Lutgart Overbergh; Chantal Mathieu IFNγ (interferon γ), a cytokine typically secreted by infiltrating immune cells in insulitis in Type 1 diabetes, is by itself not detrimental to β-cells, but, together with other cytokines, such as IL-1β (interleukin 1β) and TNFα...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 357–359.
Published: 21 May 2008
... and insulin gene expression while slightly potentiating glucose stimulated changes in intracellular free Ca 2+ concentrations. β-cell diabetes forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) insulin secretion T-cell factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) TCF7L2 (T-cell factor 7-like 2, formerly...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 272–275.
Published: 21 May 2008
.... Thus, if cell therapy should be widely available, it will require an unlimited source of cells to serve as a ‘biological’ insulin pump. At this time, the development of β-cells from hESCs (human embryonic stem cells) has emerged as the most attractive alternative. It is envisioned that ultimate success...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 276–279.
Published: 21 May 2008
... it is now clear that abnormal pancreatic development can give rise to specific forms of diabetes in humans; and finally, because, if we want to define new treatments for diabetes based on cell therapy or regenerative medicine, we will have to understand in detail how β-cells develop. In the present paper...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 334–339.
Published: 21 May 2008
...Danielle Melloul Apoptotic β-cell death appears to be central to the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes mellitus and in islet graft rejection. The β-cell destruction is partially mediated by cytokines, such as IL-1β (interleukin 1β), TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and IFN-γ (interferon γ). IL-1β...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2008) 36 (3): 306–311.
Published: 21 May 2008
..., has led to improved treatment options for patients. The studies of monogenic forms of β-cell dysfunction are no exception. Naturally occurring mutations in the gene for the β-cell enzyme glucokinase ( GCK ) result in both hyper- and hypo-glycaemia. Over 200 mutations have been described, and careful...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 675–678.
Published: 25 October 2006
...G.A. Rutter; M.K. Loder; M.A. Ravier Minute-to-minute control of the release of insulin by pancreatic β-cells in response to glucose or other stimuli requires the precise delivery of large dense-core vesicles to the plasma membrane and regulated exocytosis. At present, the precise spatial...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 811–814.
Published: 25 October 2006
...K. Bender; P. Newsholme; L. Brennan; P. Maechler The coupling of cytosolic glycolytic NADH production with the mitochondrial electron transport chain is crucial for pancreatic β-cell function and energy metabolism. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the β-cell is low, thus glycolysis-derived...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 791–793.
Published: 25 October 2006
...R. An; G. da Silva Xavier; H.-X. Hao; F. Semplici; J. Rutter; G.A. Rutter The transcription factor PDX-1 ( p ancreatic d uodenal homeobo x -1) is required for normal pancreatic development and for the function of insulin-producing islet β-cells in mammals. We have shown previously that glucose...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (5): 806–810.
Published: 25 October 2006
...H. Freeman; K. Shimomura; R.D. Cox; F.M. Ashcroft This paper reviews recent studies on the role of Nnt (nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase) in insulin secretion and detoxification of ROS (reactive oxygen species). Glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is mediated...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2006) 34 (2): 247–250.
Published: 20 March 2006
...G.A. Rutter; A. Varadi; T. Tsuboi; L. Parton; M. Ravier Defective insulin secretion from pancreatic islet β-cells is a sine qua non of Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. Digital imaging analysis of the nanomechanics of individual exocytotic events, achieved using total internal reflection...
Articles
Biochem Soc Trans (2002) 30 (2): 317–322.
Published: 01 April 2002
...R. N. Kulkarni The insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling pathways are present in most mammalian cells and play important roles in the growth and metabolism of tissues. Most proteins in these pathways have also been identified in the β-cells of the pancreatic islets. Tissue...