Pathological breakdown of membrane lipids through excessive lipid peroxidation (LPO) was first described in the mid-20th century and is now recognized as a form of regulated cell death, dubbed ferroptosis. Accumulating evidence unveils how metabolic regulation restrains peroxidation of phospholipids within cellular membranes, thereby impeding ferroptosis execution. Unleashing these metabolic breaks is currently therapeutically explored to sensitize cancers to ferroptosis inducing anti-cancer therapies. Reversely, these natural ferroptotic defense mechanisms can fail resulting in pathological conditions or diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, multi-organ dysfunction, stroke, infarction, or neurodegenerative diseases. This minireview outlines current ferroptosis-inducing anti-cancer strategies and highlights the detection as well as the therapeutic targeting of ferroptosis in preclinical experimental settings. Herein, we also briefly summarize observations related to LPO, iron and redox deregulation in patients that might hint towards ferroptosis as a contributing factor.

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