In the adult brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) are under the control of various molecular mechanisms to produce an appropriate number of neurons that are essential for specific brain functions. Usually, the majority of adult NSCs stay in a non-proliferative and undifferentiated state known as quiescence, occasionally transitioning to an active state to produce newborn neurons. This transition between the quiescent and active states is crucial for the activity of NSCs. Another significant state of adult NSCs is senescence, in which quiescent cells become more dormant and less reactive, ceasing the production of newborn neurons. Although many genes involved in the regulation of NSCs have been identified using genetic manipulation and omics analyses, the entire regulatory network is complicated and ambiguous. In this review, we focus on transcription factors, whose importance has been elucidated in NSCs by knockout or overexpression studies. We mainly discuss the transcription factors with roles in the active, quiescent, and rejuvenation states of adult NSCs.

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