Even though neurons are post-mitotic cells, they still engage in protein synthesis to uphold their cellular content balance, including for organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria. Additionally, they expend significant energy on tasks like neurotransmitter production and maintaining redox homeostasis. This cellular homeostasis is upheld through a delicate interplay between mRNA transcription-translation and protein degradative pathways, such as autophagy and proteasome degradation. When faced with cues such as nutrient stress, neurons must adapt by altering their proteome to survive. However, in many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, the pathway and processes for coping with cellular stress are impaired. This review explores neuronal proteome adaptation in response to cellular stress, such as nutrient stress, with a focus on proteins associated with autophagy, stress response pathways, and neurotransmitters.

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