The pathophysiological mechanisms intersecting metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders include insulin resistance, which has a strong involvement of environmental factors. Besides central regulation of whole-body homeostasis, insulin in the central nervous system controls molecular signalling that is critical for cognitive performance, namely signalling through pathways that modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity, and metabolism in neurons and astrocytes. This review provides an overview on how insulin signalling in the brain might regulate brain energy metabolism, and further identified molecular mechanisms by which brain insulin resistance might impair synaptic fuelling, and lead to cognitive deterioration.

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