Adult neurogenesis is a multistage process during which newborn neurons are generated through the activation and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and integrated into existing neural networks. Impaired adult neurogenesis has been observed in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, suggesting its critical role in cognitive function, brain homeostasis, and neural repair. Over the past decades, mounting evidence has identified a strong association between metabolic status and adult neurogenesis. Here, we aim to summarize how amino acids and their neuroactive metabolites affect adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, we discuss the causal link between amino acid metabolism, adult neurogenesis, and neurological diseases. Finally, we propose that systematic elucidation of how amino acid metabolism regulates adult neurogenesis has profound implications not only for understanding the biological underpinnings of brain development and neurological diseases, but also for providing potential therapeutic strategies to intervene in disease progression.

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