The key players in transcriptional regulation are transcription factors (TFs), proteins that bind specific DNA sequences. Several mechanisms exist to turn TFs ‘on’ and ‘off’, including ligand binding which induces conformational changes within TFs, subsequently influencing multiple inter- and intramolecular interactions to drive transcriptional responses. Nuclear receptors are a specific family of ligand-regulated TFs whose activity relies on interactions with DNA, coregulator proteins and other receptors. These multidomain proteins also undergo interdomain interactions on multiple levels, further modulating transcriptional outputs. Cooperation between these distinct interactions is critical for appropriate transcription and remains an intense area of investigation. In this review, we report and summarize recent findings that continue to advance our mechanistic understanding of how interactions between nuclear receptors and diverse partners influence transcription.
Many dietary plants possess high levels of 18-carbon containing lipids from both omega-6 and omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively). These dietary lipids can be metabolized to lipid mediators collectively termed octadecanoids, which can in turn interact with immune cells (e.g., macrophages, eosinophils) to exert a number of potent biological effects. These octadecanoid lipid mediators have been little studied and represent an exciting new area of lipid biochemistry. For further information, see the review in this issue by Quaranta and colleagues (pages 1569–1582). Cover image credit: Emmanuelle Chevallier.
Interactions governing transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors
Sabab Hasan Khan, C. Denise Okafor; Interactions governing transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors. Biochem Soc Trans 16 December 2022; 50 (6): 1941–1952. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20220338
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