Pyrethroids (PY) are synthetic pesticides used in many applications ranging from large-scale agriculture to household maintenance. Their classical mechanisms of action are associated with binding to the sodium channel of insect neurons, disrupting its inactivation, ensuring their use as insecticides. However, PY can also lead to toxicity in vertebrates, including humans. In most toxicological studies, the impact of PY on heart function is neglected. Acute exposure to a high dose of PY causes enhancement of the late sodium current (INaL), which impairs the action potential waveform and can cause severe cardiac arrhythmias. Moreover, long-term, low-dose exposure to PY displays oxidative stress in the heart, which could induce tissue remodeling and impairment. Isolated and preliminary evidence supports that, for acute exposure to PY, an antiarrhythmic therapy with ranolazine (an INaL blocker), can be a promising therapeutic approach. Besides, heart tissue remodeling associated with low doses and long-term exposure to PY seems to benefit from antioxidant therapy. Despite significant leaps in understanding the mechanical details of PY intoxication, currently, few studies are focusing on the heart. In this review, we present what is known and what are the gaps in the field of cardiotoxicity induced by PY.
Many dietary plants possess high levels of 18-carbon containing lipids from both omega-6 and omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively). These dietary lipids can be metabolized to lipid mediators collectively termed octadecanoids, which can in turn interact with immune cells (e.g., macrophages, eosinophils) to exert a number of potent biological effects. These octadecanoid lipid mediators have been little studied and represent an exciting new area of lipid biochemistry. For further information, see the review in this issue by Quaranta and colleagues (pages 1569–1582). Cover image credit: Emmanuelle Chevallier.
Cardiotoxicity of pyrethroids: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic options for acute and long-term toxicity
Leisiane P. Marques, Julliane V. Joviano-Santos, Diego S. Souza, A. Santos-Miranda, D. Roman-Campos; Cardiotoxicity of pyrethroids: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic options for acute and long-term toxicity. Biochem Soc Trans 16 December 2022; 50 (6): 1737–1751. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/BST20220593
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