S-acylation is a common yet poorly understood fatty acid-based post-translational modification of proteins in all eukaryotes, including plants. While exact roles for S-acylation in protein function are largely unknown the reversibility of S-acylation indicates that it is likely able to play a regulatory role. As more studies reveal the roles of S-acylation within the cell it is becoming apparent that how S-acylation affects proteins is conceptually different from other reversible modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination; a new mind-set is therefore required to fully integrate these data into our knowledge of plant biology. This review aims to highlight recent advances made in the function and enzymology of S-acylation in plants, highlights current and emerging technologies for its study and suggests future avenues for investigation.

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