FKBP51 and FKBP52 are two iconic members of the family of peptidyl-prolyl-(cis/trans)-isomerases (EC:, which comprises proteins that catalyze the cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl peptide bonds in unfolded and partially folded polypeptide chains and native state proteins. Originally, both proteins have been studied as molecular chaperones belonging to the steroid receptor heterocomplex, where they were first discovered. In addition to their expected role in receptor folding and chaperoning, FKBP51 and FKBP52 are also involved in many biological processes, such as signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, protein transport, cancer development, and cell differentiation, just to mention a few examples. Recent studies have revealed that both proteins are subject of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, SUMOlyation, and acetylation. In this work, we summarize recent advances in the study of these immunophilins portraying them as scaffolding proteins capable to organize protein heterocomplexes, describing some of their antagonistic properties in the physiology of the cell, and the putative regulation of their properties by those post-translational modifications.

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