Mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) encloses inner compartments of mitochondria and integrates cytoplasmic signals to regulate essential mitochondrial processes, such as protein import, dynamics, metabolism, cell death, etc. A substantial understanding of MOM associated proteostatic stresses and quality control pathways has been obtained in recent years. Six MOM associated protein degradation (MAD) pathways center on three AAA ATPases: Cdc48 in the cytoplasm, Msp1 integral to MOM, and Yme1 integral to the inner membrane. These pathways survey MOM proteome from the cytoplasmic and the inter-membrane space (IMS) sides. They detect and degrade MOM proteins with misfolded cytoplasmic and IMS domains, remove mistargeted tail-anchored proteins, and clear mitochondrial precursor proteins clogged in the TOM import complex. These MOM associated protein quality control pathways collaboratively maintain mitochondrial proteostasis and cell viability.

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