Among several theories to explain the complicated process of human ageing, the mitochondrial oxidative stress hypothesis has received recent attention. Considering that lifespan and ageing rates vary considerably across taxa, a better understanding of factors that lead to negligible or extremely rapid senescence in mammals may generate novel approaches to target human ageing. Several species, such as naked mole rats, ocean quahog, rockfish and Greenland shark, have been identified that exhibit negligible senescence and superior resistance to age-related diseases. Considering that the available literature suggests that their outstanding stress resistance is linked to maintenance of protein homeostasis and robust mitochondrial functions, treatments that target protein modification and upregulation of matrix antioxidants may have implications for extending human health span.

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