CFTR (ABCC7) is a phospho-regulated chloride channel that is found in the apical membranes of epithelial cells, is gated by ATP and the activity of the protein is crucial in the homeostasis of the extracellular liquid layer in many organs [Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2008) 77, 701–726; Science (1989) 245, 1066–1073]. Mutations in CFTR cause the inherited disease cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common inherited condition in humans of European descent [Science (1989) 245, 1066–1073; Pflugers Arch. (2007) 453, 555–567]. The structural basis of CF will be discussed in this article.

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