Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an abundant class of RNAs that include small ncRNAs, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) and pseudogenes. The human ncRNA atlas includes thousands of these specialised RNA molecules that are further subcategorised based on their size or function. Two of the more well-known and widely studied ncRNA species are microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs. These are regulatory RNAs and their altered expression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Failure to express a functional cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane receptor (CFTR) chloride ion channel in epithelial cells underpins CF. Secondary to the CFTR defect, it is known that other pathways can be altered and these may contribute to the pathophysiology of CF lung disease in particular. For example, quantitative alterations in expression of some ncRNAs are associated with CF. In recent years, there has been a series of published studies exploring ncRNA expression and function in CF. The majority have focussed principally on miRNAs, with just a handful of reports to date on lncRNAs. The present study reviews what is currently known about ncRNA expression and function in CF, and discusses the possibility of applying this knowledge to the clinical management of CF in the near future.

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