Signalling by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is critical for protecting the host against pathogens. Disruption of these signalling pathways has been implicated in many diseases ranging from infection susceptibility to cancer and autoimmune disease. Understanding how PRRs signal is of critical importance due to their potential as therapeutic targets to ameliorate symptoms of inflammatory diseases. The recent advances in microscopy, such as the discovery of fluorescent proteins and the breaking of the diffraction limit of light, offer a unique opportunity to visualise receptor signalling at a single protein level within living cells. Many different microscopy techniques have been developed and used for dissecting different aspects of PRR signalling pathways. This review will provide an overview of the main microscopy techniques used for dissecting these pathways with a focus on Toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signalling.

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