Sustained cellular signalling originated from the receptors located at the plasma membrane is widely associated with cancer susceptibility. Endosomal sorting and degradation of the cell surface receptors is therefore crucial to preventing chronic downstream signalling and tumorigenesis. Since the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) controls these processes, ESCRT components were proposed to act as tumour suppressor genes. However, the bona fide role of ESCRT components in tumorigenesis has not been clearly demonstrated. The ESCRT member HD-PTP/PTPN23 was recently identified as a novel haplo-insufficient tumour suppressor in vitro and in vivo, in mice and humans. In this mini-review, we outline the role of the ESCRT components in cancer and summarize the functions of HD-PTP/PTPN23 in tumorigenesis.

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