Adoptive regulatory T-cell (Treg) therapy using autologous Tregs expanded ex vivo is a promising therapeutic approach which is currently being investigated clinically as a means of treating various autoimmune diseases and transplant rejection. Despite this, early results have highlighted the need for potent Tregs to yield a substantial clinical advantage. One way to achieve this is to create antigen-specific Tregs which have been shown in pre-clinical animal models to have an increased potency at suppressing undesired immune responses, compared to polyclonal Tregs. This mini review outlines where Treg therapy currently stands and discusses the approaches which may be taken to generate antigen-specific Tregs, including the potential use of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), for future clinical trials.

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