In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge about the cross-talk between the different levels of gene expression. We introduce the Ccr4 (carbon catabolite repressed 4)–Not (negative on TATA-less) complex as a candidate to be a master regulator that orchestrates between the different levels of gene expression. An integrated view of the findings about the Ccr4–Not complex suggests that it is involved in gene expression co-ordination. Since the discovery of the Not proteins in a selection for transcription regulators in yeast [Collart and Struhl (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 525–537], the Ccr4–Not complex has been connected to every step of the mRNA lifecycle. Moreover, it has been found to be relevant for appropriate protein folding and quaternary protein structure by being involved in co-translational protein complex assembly.

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