The evolutionary conserved chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is essential for faithful transmission of the genome during cell division. Perturbation of this complex in cultured cells gives rise to chromosome segregation errors and cytokinesis failure and as a consequence the ploidy status of the next generation of cells is changed. Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) is observed in many human cancers, but whether this may be caused by deregulation of the CPC is unknown. In the present review, we discuss if and how a dysfunctional CPC could contribute to CIN in cancer.

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