miRNAs are highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules that negatively control gene expression by binding to target mRNAs promoting their degradation. A multitude of miRNAs have been reported to be involved in angiogenesis and vascular remodelling. In the present review, we aim to describe the effect of miRNAs in post-ischaemic repair. First, we describe the miRNAs reported in ischaemic diseases and in angiogenesis. Then we examine their capacity to modulate the behaviour of stem and progenitor cells which could be utilized for vascular repair. And finally we discuss the potential of miRNAs as new clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

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