Glo1 (glyxoalase I) is a cytosolic protein expressed in all mammalian cells. Its physiological function is the detoxification of MG (methylglyoxal), which is a potent precursor of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products). Although the impact of AGEs on different forms of vascular diseases has been intensively investigated, the evidence for the involvement of Glo1 and MG is still scarce. Recently, several studies have provided significant evidence for Glo1 having a protective effect on microvascular complications in diabetic patients, such as retinopathy and nephropathy. Regarding macrovascular complications, especially atherosclerotic lesions, the impact of Glo1 is even less clear. In the present article, we review the latest findings regarding the role of Glo1 and MG in vascular biology and the pathophysiology of micro- and macro-vascular disease.

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