TGR5 (Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5) [also known as GPBAR1 (G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1), M-BAR (membrane-type receptor for bile acids) or GPR131 (G-protein-coupled receptor 131)] is a G-protein-coupled receptor that was discovered as a bile acid receptor. TGR5 has specific roles in several tissues, among which are the regulation of energy expenditure, GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1) secretion and gall bladder filling. An accumulating body of evidence now demonstrates that TGR5 also acts in a number of processes important in inflammation. Most striking in this context are several observations that TGR5 signalling curbs the inflammatory response of macrophages via interfering with NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activity. In line with this, recent animal studies also suggest that TGR5 could be exploited as a potential target for intervention in a number of inflammation-driven diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present paper, I review our current understanding of TGR5 with a strong focus on its potential as target for intervention in inflammation-driven diseases.

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