Mitochondrial complex I has a molecular mass of almost 1 MDa and comprises more than 40 polypeptides. Fourteen central subunits harbour the bioenergetic core functions. We are only beginning to understand the significance of the numerous accessory subunits. The present review addresses the role of accessory subunits for assembly, stability and regulation of complex I and for cellular functions not directly associated with redox-linked proton translocation.

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