Assignments of IR bands of reduced minus oxidized IR difference spectra of bovine and related cytochrome c oxidases are reviewed and their linkages to specific metal centres are assessed. To aid this, redox-poised difference spectra in the presence of cyanide or carbon monoxide are presented. These ligands fix the redox states of either haem a3 alone or haem a3 and CuB respectively, while allowing redox cycling of the remaining centres.

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