Hypoxia is a frequently encountered feature of the cellular microenvironment in a number of pathophysiological processes in which programmed cell death (apoptosis) affects disease progression including, but not limited to, cancer, chronic inflammation, myocardial infarction, stroke and ischaemic acute kidney injury. In these diseases, the presence of hypoxia can significantly affect the rate of cell death and thus may make a significant contribution to disease progression. In the present review, we discuss the complex relationship that exists between the presence of hypoxia and the regulation of cell death pathways.

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