Recent studies in mouse, involving the β-cell-specific deletion of Dicer1, have highlighted the crucial role of miRNAs (microRNAs) in regulating insulin secretion and consequently Type 2 diabetes. Identifying the individual miRNAs involved in human islet dysfunction may be of diagnostic and therapeutic interest. miRNA expression profiling of human islets isolated from donors with and without Type 2 diabetes may represent one of the first steps in the discovery of these specific miRNAs. The present review discusses some of the potential pitfalls and promises of such an approach.

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