RPs (ribosomal proteins) are main components of the ribosome having essential functions in its biogenesis, function and structural integrity. Although most of the RP molecules are in the cytoplasm, being incorporated into translating ribosomes, some RPs have non-ribosomal functions when they are off ribosomal subunits. Notably, in eukaryotes, RPs are also present at transcription sites and some of these proteins have a function in transcription and pre-mRNA processing of specific genes. Although the consensus is that the proteins found at these sites are isolated RPs not assembled into ribosomal subunits, it has been proposed that ribosomal subunits might also be present. In the present paper, we review the available evidence for RPs at transcription sites and conclude that ribosomal subunits might be present, but additional studies will be required to solve this important issue.

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