Lysosomes form part of our innate immunity and are an important line of defence against microbes, viruses and parasites. Although it is more than 50 years since de Duve discovered lysosomes, it is only in more recent years that we are slowly unravelling the molecular mechanisms involved in the delivery of material to the lysosome. However, successful intracellular pathogens often have a better grip on the mechanisms involved in delivery to the lysosome and can manipulate membrane trafficking pathways to create an intracellular environment that is favourable for replication. By studying pathogen effector proteins that are secreted into the host's cytosol, we can learn about both pathogen-survival mechanisms and further regulatory elements involved in trafficking to the lysosome.

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