Modelling and optimization principles become a key concept in many biological areas, especially in biochemistry. Definitions of objective function, fitness and co-evolution, although they differ between biology and mathematics, are similar in a general sense. Although successful in fitting models to experimental data, and some biochemical predictions, optimization and evolutionary computations should be developed further to make more accurate real-life predictions, and deal not only with one organism in isolation, but also with communities of symbiotic and competing organisms. One of the future goals will be to explain and predict evolution not only for organisms in shake flasks or fermenters, but for real competitive multispecies environments.

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