While it is clear that the proteasome is the major player in degradative proteolysis in the nucleus and cytosol, there is a lack of complete agreement on whether there are alternative proteolytic pathways or activities responsible for a significant degradation of cytosolic/nuclear substrates. Particularly relevant is the case of the aminopeptidase TPPII (tripeptidyl peptidase II), which has been suggested to be able to perform some of the proteasome functions. However, the current evidence seems to support only a limited role for these cytosolic alternatives. On the other hand, there is evidence of an alternative, autophagy, a pathway involving the delivery of cytosolic substrates to the lysosome for degradation.

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