The IRF [IFN (interferon) regulatory factor] family of transcription factors control many cellular processes, including induction of key antiviral cytokines, type I IFNs, following viral infection. Recent studies have revealed several endogenous and viral proteins involved in ubiquitin-mediated regulation of IRF activity and thus having an impact on type I IFN signalling. Through the ubiquitin pathway, these proteins can manipulate the antiviral response either by initiating proteasomal degradation of the IRFs or, in contrast, by promoting activation of the IRFs.

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